Influence of Glomus Species and Soil Phosphorous on Verticillium Wilt in Bt Cotton
Keywords:Single superphosphate, Mycorrhiza, Verticillium, Glomus species, Bt cotton, wilt
Amendment of single superphosphate to the soil was done at 20mg /kg and 300mg /kg. After that soil was treated with different treatments like a) Verticillium dahliae, b) Glomus species, c) both Verticillium and Glomus species d) None of Glomus species and Verticillium. The Verticillium wilt was more severe in plants infected with Glomus species than non-mycorrhizal plants fertigated at 20mg P / kg of soil. However, in plants fertigated with 300mg P / kg of soil, Verticillium wilt was equally severe in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. More propagules of V. dahliae were found in the plants fertigated with 20mg P / kg of soil, in petioles of mycorrhizal plants than that of non-mycorrhizal plants.
The plants fertigated with 300mg P / kg of soil reported maximum number of propagules of V. dahliae were not significantly different in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. It was found that infection of V. dahliae in Bt cotton by Glomus species was not affected in plants fertigated with 20mg P / kg of soil. The infection was inhibited by phosphorous and further by V. dahliae in plants fertigated with 300mg P / kg of soil. The concentrations of phosphorous in the leaves of the treated plants were found similar to the treated mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants fertigated with 20mg P / kg of soil. The plants infected with V. dahliae alone were found lower than the plants infected with both V. dahliae and Glomus species.
Baltruschat, H. & Schönbeck, F. (1972). Influence of endotrophic mycorrhiza on chlamydospore production of Thielaviopsis basicola in tobacco roots. Phytopathol. Z., 74: 358-361.
Baltruschat, H. & Schönbeck, F. (1975). The influence of endotrophic mycorrhiza on the infestation of tobacco by Thielaviopsis basicola. Phytopathol. Z., 84(2): 172–188.
Buchenauer, H. & Erwin, D.C. (1972). Control of Verticillium wilt of cotton by spraying with acidic solutions of benomyl, methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate and thiabendazole. Phytopath. Z., 75: 124–139.
Daft, M.J. & Nicolson, T.H. (1969). Effect of endogone mycorrhiza on plant growth. II. Influence of soluble phosphate on endophyte and host in maize. New Phytol., 68(4): 945–952. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1969.tb06494.x.
Dehne, H.W. & Schönbeck, F. (1975). The influence of the endotrophic mycorrhiza on the fusarial wilt of tomato. Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz, 82(10): 630-632.
Gerdemann, J.W. & Nicolson, T.H. (1963). Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 46(2): 235–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(63)80079-0.
Hafez, A.A.R., Stout, P.R. & DeVay, J.E. (1975). Potassium Uptake by Cotton in Relation to Verticillium Wilt1. Agron. J., 67(3): 359–361. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1975.00021962006700030019x.
Hattingh, M.J., Gray, L.E. & Gerdemann, J.W. (1973). Uptake and translocation of 32P-labeled phosphate to onion roots by endomycorrhizal fungi. Soil Sci., 116: 383–387.
Hoagland, D.R. & Arnon, D.I. (1938). The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Circular (California Agricultural Experiment Station), University of California, 347, 39 pp.
Huisman, O.C. & Ashworth, L.J. (1974). Verticillium albo-atrum: Quantitative isolation of microsclerotia from field soils. Phytopathology, 64: 1159-1163.
Hurlimann, J.H. (1974). Response of cotton and corn growth in fumigated soil. Ph.D. Diss., University of California, Berkeley. 94 pp.
Hayman, D.S. (1986). Mycorrhizae of nitrogen-fixation legumes. MIRCEN J. Appl. Microbiol Biotechnol., 2: 121–145.
Labanauskas, C.K., Nauer, E.M. & Roistacher C.N. (1967). Initial soil-mix and postplanting liquid fertilization effects on nutrient concentrations in Valencia orange seedling leaves. Hilgardia, 38(15): 569-577. https://doi.org/10.3733/hilg.v38n15p569.
McGee, P.A., Torrisi, V. & Pattinson, G.S. (1999). The relationship between density of Glomus mosseae propagules and the initiation and spread of arbuscular mycorrhizas in cotton roots. Mycorrhiza, 9(4): 221–225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s005720050270.
Mosse, B. (1973). Advances in the Study of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 11(1): 171–196. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.py.11.090173.001131.
Nehl, D.B., Allen, S.J. & Brown, J.F. (1998). Slow arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of field-grown cotton caused by environmental conditions in the soil. Mycorrhiza, 8(3): 159–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s005720050229.
Phillips, J.M. & Hayman, D.S. (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 55(1): 158–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(70)80110-3.
Rich, J.R. & Bird, G.W. (1974). Association of early-season vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae with increased growth and development of cotton. Phytophatology, 64: 1421-1425.
Ross, J.P. (1972). Influence of Endogone mycorrhiza on Phytophthora rot of soybean. Phytopathology, 62: 896–897.
Ross, J.P. & Harper, J.A. (1970). Effect of Endogone mycorrhiza on soybean yields. Phytopathology, 60: 1552–1556.
Schönbeck, F. & Dehne, H.W. (1977). Damage to mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal cotton seedligns by Thielaviopsis basicola. Plant Dis., 61: 266–267.
Zak, J.C., McMichael, B., Dhillion, S. & Friese, C. (1998). Arbuscular-mycorrhizal colonization dynamics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growing under several production systems on the Southern High Plains, Texas. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 68(3): 245–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(97)00151-5.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2012 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.