Effect of Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees Leaf Extract Prepared by two Different Methods on Mitosis of Root Meristematic Cells of Allium cepa L.
Keywords:Adhatoda vasica, Leaf Extract, Allium cepa, Genotoxicity, Cytotoxicity
Adhatoda vasica is a well-known plant drug in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. Adhatoda leaves have been used extensively in Ayurvedic Medicine primarily for respiratory disorders. Aqueous leaf extract of A. vasica was used to investigate its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa. 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations of leaf extract prepared by two different ways were used in the present study. It was found that leaf extract of A. vasica exhibits mitodepressive activity as well as it induces disorder of chromosome kinetic including formation of sticky chromosome, c-metaphase, metaphasic and anaphasic disorders in Allium cepa root meristem.
Agharkar, S.P. (1953). Gazetteer of Bombay State, Part I—Medicinal Plants. The Government Central Press, Bombay, pp. 10–11.
Amin, A.W. (2002). Cytotoxicity Testing of Sewage Water Treatment Using Allium cepa Chromosome Aberrations Assay. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 5: 184-188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2002.184.188.
Atal, C.K. (1980). Chemistry and Pharmacology of Vasicine: A New Oxytocic and Abortifacient. Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu-Tawi, India, pp. 149.
Bakare, A.A., Mosuro, A.A. & Osibanjo, O. (2000). Effect of simulated leachate on chromosomes and mitosis in roots of Allium cepa (L). J. Environ. Biol., 21: 263–271.
Bose, K.C. (1932). Pharmacopoeia India: Being a Collection of Vegetable, Mineral and Animal Drugs in Common Use in India. The Book Co., Calcutta, India, pp. 24–25.
Chakraborty, A. & Brantner, A.H. (2001). Study of alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica Nees on their antiinflammatory activity. Phytother. Res., 15(6): 532–534. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.737.
Chopra, R.N. & Chopra, I.C. (1955). A review of work on Indian medicinal plants (including indigenous drugs and poisonous plants). Special Report Series, No. 30, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi.
Clamp, J.R., Hartog, M. & Shelley, J.H. (1979). Carbohydrate-containing materials in urine from normal and diabetic subjects. Clin. Sci., 56(2): 193–196. https://doi.org/10.1042/cs0560193.
Darrel Crain, D.C. (2007). Mysterious Disappearance of Bees. Planet Chiropractic News, Retrieved from https://planetc1.com/mysterious-disappearance-of-bees.
Gao, H., Huang, Y.N., Gao, B., Li, P., Inagaki, C. & Kawabata, J. (2008). Inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase by Adhatoda vasica Nees. Food Chem., 108(3): 965–972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.002.
Grant, W.F. (1982). Chromosome aberration assays in Allium. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program. Mutat. Res., 99(3): 273–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1110(82)90046-x.
Ilango, K., Chitra, V., Kanimozhi, P. & Balaji, G. (2009). Antidiabetic, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Leaf extracts of Adhatoda zeylanica. Medic (Acanthaceae). J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 1(2): 67-73.
IDMA (2002). Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Revised New Edition, Indian drug Manufacturers Association, Mumbai, pp. 33–39.
Malla, S.B., Rajbhandari, S.B., Shrestha, T.B., Adhikari, P.M. & Adhikari, S.R. (1982). Wild edible plants of Nepal. Bulletin No. 9, Department of Medicinal Plants, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp. 3-4.
Maluszynska, J. & Juchimiuk, J. (2005). Plant genotoxicity: a molecular cytogenetic approach in plant bioassays. Arh. Hig. Rada Toksikol., 56(2): 177–184.
Manjunath, B.L. (1948). The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Delhi, pp. 31-32.
Mercykutty, V.C. & Stephen, J. (1980). Adriamycin Induced Genetic Toxicity as Demonstrated by the Allium Test. Cytologia, 45(4): 769–777. https://doi.org/10.1508/cytologia.45.769.
Nath, D., Sethi, N., Srivastav, S., Jain, A.K. & Srivastava, R. (1997). Survey on indigenous medicinal plants used for abortion in some districts of Uttar Pradesh. Fitoterapia, 68(3): 223-225.
Padmaja, M., Sravanthi, M. & Hemalatha, K.P.J. (2001). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of two Indian medicinal plants. J. Phytol., 3(3): 86-91.
Schneiderman, M.H., Dewey, W.C. & Highfield, D.P. (1971). Inhibition of DNA synthesis in synchronized Chinese hamster cells treated in G1 with cycloheximide. Exp. Cell Res., 67(1): 147–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4827(71)90630-6.
Schulze, E. & Kirschner, M. (1986). Microtubule dynamics in interphase cells. J. Cell Biol., 102(3): 1020–1031. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.102.3.1020.
Sharma, A.K. & Sharma, A. (1980). Chromosome Techniques: Theory and Practice. 3rd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, London.
Soliman, M.I. (2001). Genotoxicity Testing of Neem Plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) Using the Allium cepa Chromosome Aberration Assay. J. Biol. Sci., 1: 1021-1027. https://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2001.1021.1027.
Soni, S., Anandjiwala, S., Patel, G. & Rajani, M. (2008). Validation of Different Methods of Preparation of Adhatoda vasica Leaf Juice by Quantification of Total Alkaloids and Vasicine. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 70(1): 36–42. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.40329.
Srinivasarao, D., Jayarraj, I.A., Jayraaj, R. & Prabha, M.L. (2006). A study on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of vasicine against lung damage in rats. Indian J. Allergy Asthma Immunol., 20(1): 1-7.
Türkoğlu, S. (2007). Genotoxicity of five food preservatives tested on root tips of Allium cepa L. Mutat. Res., 626: 4–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.07.006.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.