Microbiota and Related Disease

Authors

Keywords:

Gut Microbiota, Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes, Neurological disorders, Gut homeostasis, Microbiota dysbiosis

Abstract

The microbiota is a complex community of wide range of bacteria and other microorganisms that can be found in numerous parts of human body, including the gastrointestinal tract, skin, mouth, respiratory system and vaginal canal. Over 70% of the microbiota live in a mutualistic and beneficial relationship with their host. Every individual has a distinct gut microbiota composition, which play a range of roles in the food metabolic system of the host, the structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation and pathogen protection. Taxonomically there are different microorganisms categorized in the gut microbiota. Early in life, the makeup of each human intestinal microbiota is determined by the changes in infants (gestational age, delivery, dairy feeding and weaning) as well as external variables, such as the use of antibiotics. In adult life these personal and balanced cores of native microbiota are typically constant, although enterotypes, BMI levels, working-out frequency, lifestyle, cultural and nutritional habits differ from person to person. As a result, since the gut microbiota makeup of each individual is different, there is no optimal intestinal microbiota composition. However, a balanced healthy host-microorganism must be maintained in order to perform metabolic and immunological activities in an optimal manner, and avoid disease progression. There are a number of extra-intestinal disorders that lead to microbiota dysbiosis, including metabolism, neurology, and cancer. An appropriate treatment options should assist in understanding the origin and consequences of the gut microbiota balance in health and illness and also help to preserve or restore a healthy gut microbiota composition.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Darya Sardar Muhammadrasheed

Department of Medical Biology, Health Science Institute, Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University, Tokat-Turkey.

Aso Hemn Omar

Department of Pathological Analytics, Paitaxt Technical Institute, Erbil- Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

Aras Othman Rasool

Department of Pathological Analytics, Paitaxt Technical Institute, Erbil-Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

Gulstan Mudhafar Mokhtar

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Koya-Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

References

Abeliovich A, Gitler AD. Defects in trafficking bridge Parkinson’s disease pathology and genetics. Nature. 2016;539(7628):207–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature20414

Alipour M. Molecular Mechanism of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer. Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer. 2021;52:23–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12029-020-00518-5

Alzahrani SM, Al Doghaither HA, Al Ghafari AB. General insight into cancer: An overview of colorectal cancer (Review). Molecular and Clinical Oncology 2021;15(6):271. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2433

Aschard H, Laville V, Tchetgen ET, Knights D, Imhann F, Seksik P, et al. Genetic effects on the commensal microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease patients. PLOS Genetics. 2019;15(3):e1008018. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008018

Ashwood P, Krakowiak P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Pessah I, Van de Water J. Elevated plasma cytokines in autism spectrum disorders provide evidence of immune dysfunction and are associated with impaired behavioral outcome. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2011;25(1):40–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2010.08.003

Baizabal-Carvallo JF, Alonso-Juarez M. The Link between Gut Dysbiosis and Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease. Neuroscience. 2020;432:160–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.02.030

Bakhti SZ, Latifi-Navid S. Interplay and cooperation of Helicobacter pylori and gut microbiota in gastric carcinogenesis. BMC Microbiology. 2021;21:258. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02315-x

Baothman OA, Zamzami MA, Taher I, Abubaker J, Abu-Farha M. The role of Gut Microbiota in the development of obesity and Diabetes. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2016;15:108. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-016-0278-4

Barichella M, Severgnini M, Cilia R, Cassani E, Bolliri C, Caronni S, et al. Unraveling gut microbiota in Parkinson’s disease and atypical parkinsonism. Movement Disorders. 2019;34(3):396–405. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.27581

Bayliss J, Stark R, Reichenbach A, Andrews ZB. Gut Hormones Restrict Neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s Disease. In: Chang RC, editor. Advanced Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases. London: IntechOpen; 2011. pp. 269-284. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/28028

Belkaid Y, Hand TW. Role of the microbiota in immunity and inflammation. Cell. 2014;157(1):121–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.011

Berg D, Postuma RB, Adler CH, Bloem BR, Chan P, Dubois B, et al. MDS research criteria for prodromal Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders. 2015;30(12):1600–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.26431

Boulangé CL, Neves AL, Chilloux J, Nicholson JK, Dumas M-E. Impact of the gut microbiota on inflammation, obesity, and metabolic disease. Genome Medicine. 2016;8:42. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13073-016-0303-2

Bridi JC, Hirth F. Mechanisms of α-synuclein induced synaptopathy in Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2018;12:80. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00080

Brown CT, Davis-Richardson AG, Giongo A, Gano KA, Crabb DB, Mukherjee N, et al. Gut microbiome metagenomics analysis suggests a functional model for the development of autoimmunity for Type 1 Diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25792. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025792

Bullich C, Keshavarzian A, Garssen J, Kraneveld A, Perez‐Pardo P. Gut Vibes in Parkinson’s Disease: The Microbiota‐Gut‐Brain Axis. Movement Disorders Clinical Practice. 2019;6(8):639–51. https://doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12840

Cani PD, Delzenne NM. The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disease. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2009a;15(13):1546–58. https://doi.org/10.2174/138161209788168164

Cani PD, Possemiers S, Van de Wiele T, Guiot Y, Everard A, Rottier O, et al. Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability. Gut. 2009b;58(8):1091–103. 10.1136/gut.2008.165886

Choi J, Hur TY, Hong Y. Influence of altered gut microbiota composition on aging and aging-related diseases. Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2018;8(1):1–7. https://doi.org/10.15280/jlm.2018.8.1.1

Cunningham AL, Stephens JW, Harris DA. Gut microbiota influence in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gut pathogens. 2021;13(1):50. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13099-021-00446-0

de Magistris L, Familiari V, Pascotto A, Sapone A, Frolli A, Iardino P, et al. Alterations of the Intestinal Barrier in Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorders and in Their First-degree Relatives. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition. 2010;51(4):418–24. https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181dcc4a5

de Martel C, Ferlay J, Franceschi S, Vignat J, Bray F, Forman D, et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis. The Lancet Oncology. 2012;13(6):607–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70137-7

Emanuele E, Orsi P, Boso M, Broglia D, Brondino N, Barale F, et al. Low-grade endotoxemia in patients with severe autism. Neuroscience Letters. 2010;471(3):162–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2010.01.033

Ferreira CM, Vieira AT, Vinolo MAR, Oliveira FA, Curi R, Martins F dos S. The central role of the gut microbiota in chronic inflammatory diseases. Journal of Immunology Research. 2014;2014:689492. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/689492

Fiorentino M, Sapone A, Senger S, Camhi SS, Kadzielski SM, Buie TM, et al. Blood–brain barrier and intestinal epithelial barrier alterations in autism spectrum disorders. Molecular Autism. 2016;7(1):49. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-016-0110-z

Fitzgerald E, Murphy S, Martinson HA. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology and the Role of the Microbiota in Parkinson’s Disease. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2019;13:369. https://doi.org/ 10.3389/fnins.2019.00369

Ge, Y., Wang, X., Guo, Y. et al. Gut microbiota influence tumor development and Alter interactions with the human immune system. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research. 2021;40:42. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01845-6

Giau V, Wu S, Jamerlan A, An S, Kim S, Hulme J. Gut microbiota and their neuroinflammatory implications in Alzheimer’s disease. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1765. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111765

Gill SR, Pop M, DeBoy RT, Eckburg PB, Turnbaugh PJ, Samuel BS, et al. Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome. Science. 2006;312(5778):1355–9. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1124234

Giongo A, Gano KA, Crabb DB, Mukherjee N, Novelo LL, Casella G, et al. Toward defining the autoimmune microbiome for type 1 diabetes. The ISME Journal. 2011;5(1):82–91. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.92

Glassner KL, Abraham BP, Quigley EMM. The microbiome and inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2020;145(1):16–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.11.003

Grenham S, Clarke G, Cryan JF, Dinan TG. Brain-gut-microbe communication in health and disease. Frontiers in Physiology. 2011;2:94. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2011.00094

Gülden E, Wong FS, Wen L. The gut microbiota and Type 1 Diabetes. Clinical Immunology. 2015;159(2):143–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2015.05.013

Hsiao EY, McBride SW, Hsien S, Sharon G, Hyde ER, McCue T, et al. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cell. 2013;155(7):1451–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.11.024

Hsieh T-H, Kuo C-W, Hsieh K-H, Shieh M-J, Peng C-W, Chen Y-C, et al. Probiotics Alleviate the Progressive Deterioration of Motor Functions in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Brain Sciences. 2020;10(4):206. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10040206

Hu L, Dong M-X, Huang Y-L, Lu C-Q, Qian Q, Zhang C-C, et al. Integrated Metabolomics and Proteomics Analysis Reveals Plasma Lipid Metabolic Disturbance in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2020;13:80. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00080

Jandhyala SM, Talukdar R, Subramanyam C, Vuyyuru H, Sasikala M, Nageshwar Reddy D. Role of the normal gut microbiota. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2015;21(29):8787-803. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i29.8787

Jiang C, Li G, Huang P, Liu Z, Zhao B. The gut microbiota and Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2017;58(1):1–15. https://doi.org/10.3233/jad-161141

Karlsson F, Tremaroli V, Nielsen J, Bäckhed F. Assessing the human gut microbiota in metabolic diseases. Diabetes. 2013;62(10):3341–9. https://doi.org/10.2337/db13-0844

Keshavarzian A, Green SJ, Engen PA, Voigt RM, Naqib A, Forsyth CB, et al. Colonic bacterial composition in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders. 2015;30(10):1351–60. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.26307

Kostic, AD, Chun, E, Meyerson, M, Garrett, WS. Microbes and Inflammation in Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Immunology Research. 2013;1(3):150–157. https://doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0101

Kusters JG, van Vliet AH, Kuipers EJ. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2006;19(3):449-490. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00054-05

Li Q, Han Y, Dy ABC, Hagerman RJ. The gut microbiota and autism spectrum disorders. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 2017;11:120. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2017.00120

Li X, Chauhan A, Sheikh AM, Patil S, Chauhan V, Li X-M, et al. Elevated immune response in the brain of autistic patients. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 2009;207(1-2):111–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2008.12.002

Li Z, Zhu H, Zhang L, Qin C. The intestinal microbiome and Alzheimer’s disease: A review. Animal Models and Experimental Medicine. 2018;1(3):180–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12033

Liang S, Wang T, Hu X, Luo J, Li W, Wu X, et al. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress. Neuroscience. 2015;310:561–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.09.033

Liu F, Li J, Wu F, Zheng H, Peng Q, Zhou H. Altered composition and function of intestinal microbiota in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Translational Psychiatry. 2019;9:43. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0389-6

Liu S, Zhao W, Lan P, Mou X. The microbiome in inflammatory bowel diseases: from pathogenesis to therapy. Protein & Cell. 2020;12(5):331–45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13238-020-00745-3

Lobzhanidze G, Japaridze N, Lordkipanidze T, Rzayev F, MacFabe D, Zhvania M. Behavioural and brain ultrastructural changes following the systemic administration of propionic acid in adolescent male rats. Further development of a rodent model of autism. International journal of developmental neuroscience. 2020;80(2):139-156. https://doi.org/10.1002/jdn.10011

Lu CY, Ni YH. Gut microbiota and the development of pediatric diseases. Journal of Gastroenterology. 2015;50(7):720–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-015-1082-z

Ma Q, Xing C, Long W, Wang HY, Liu Q, Wang R-F. Impact of microbiota on central nervous system and neurological diseases: the gut-brain axis. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2019;16:53. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1434-3

Machiels K, Joossens M, Sabino J, De Preter V, Arijs I, Eeckhaut V, et al. A decrease of the butyrate-producing species Roseburia hominis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii defines dysbiosis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gut. 2013;63(8):1275–83. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305799

Matsuoka K, Kanai T. The gut microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease. Seminars in Immunopathology. 2015;37(1):47–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-014-0454-4

Moffa S, Mezza T, Cefalo CMA, Cinti F, Impronta F, Sorice GP, et al. The interplay between immune system and microbiota in diabetes. Mediators of Inflammation. 2019;2019:9367404. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9367404

Mulak A, Bonaz B. Brain-gut-microbiota axis in Parkinson’s disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2015;21(37):10609–20. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i37.10609

Murri M, Leiva I, Gomez-Zumaquero JM, Tinahones FJ, Cardona F, Soriguer F, et al. Gut microbiota in children with Type 1 Diabetes differs from that in healthy children: A case-control study. BMC Medicine. 2013;11(1):46. https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-11-46

Nishino K, Nishida A, Inoue R, Kawada Y, Ohno M, Sakai S, et al. Analysis of endoscopic brush samples identified mucosa-associated dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Gastroenterology. 2018;53(1):95–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-017-1384-4

Nogay NH, Nahikian-Nelms M. Can we reduce autism-related gastrointestinal and behavior problems by gut microbiota based dietary modulation? A review. Nutritional Neuroscience. 2021;24(5):327–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/1028415x.2019.1630894

Onore C, Careaga M, Ashwood P. The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of autism. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2012;26(3):383–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2011.08.007

Opazo MC, Ortega-Rocha EM, Coronado-Arrázola I, Bonifaz LC, Boudin H, Neunlist M, et al. Intestinal microbiota influences non-intestinal related autoimmune diseases. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2018;9:432. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00432

Pasini E, Corsetti G, Assanelli D, Testa C, Romano C, Dioguardi FS, et al. Effects of chronic exercise on gut microbiota and intestinal barrier in human with Type 2 Diabetes. Minerva Medica. 2019;110(1):3–11. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.18.05589-1

Prideaux L, Kamm MA, De Cruz PP, Chan FKL, Ng SC. Inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: A systematic review. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2012;27(8):1266–80. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2012.07150.x

Quigley EMM. Leaky gut – concept or clinical entity? Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 2016;32(2):74–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0000000000000243

Raisch J. Colon cancer-associated B2 Escherichia coli colonize gut mucosa and promote cell proliferation. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2014;20(21):6560. https://doi.org/10.3748%2Fwjg.v20.i21.6560

Rea K, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. The microbiome: A key regulator of stress and neuroinflammation. Neurobiology of Stress. 2016;4:23–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2016.03.001

Robertson RC, Manges AR, Finlay BB, Prendergast AJ. The Human Microbiome and Child Growth - First 1000 Days and Beyond. Trends in Microbiology. 2019;27(2):131-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2018.09.008

Sampson TR, Debelius JW, Thron T, Janssen S, Shastri GG, Ilhan ZE, et al. Gut Microbiota Regulate Motor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Cell. 2016;167(6):1469-1480.e12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.11.018

Schirmer M, Franzosa EA, Lloyd-Price J, McIver LJ, Schwager R, Poon TW, et al. Dynamics of metatranscription in the inflammatory bowel disease gut microbiome. Nature Microbiology. 2018;3(3):337–46. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-017-0089-z

Sekirov I, Russell SL, Antunes LCM, Finlay BB. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiological Reviews. 2010;90(3):859–904. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00045.2009

Senghor B, Sokhna C, Ruimy R, Lagier J-C. Gut microbiota diversity according to dietary habits and geographical provenance. Human Microbiome Journal. 2018;7-8:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humic.2018.01.001

Shen T, Yue Y, He T, Huang C, Qu B, Lv W, et al. The association between the gut microbiota and Parkinson’s disease, A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2021;13:636545. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.636545

Su A, Gandhy R, Barlow C, Triadafilopoulos G. A practical review of gastrointestinal manifestations in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. 2017;39:17–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.02.029

Sun C, Li B, Wang B, Zhao J, Zhang X, Li T, et al. The role of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal cancer: from carcinogenesis to clinical management. Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. 2019;5(3):178–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cdtm.2019.09.001

Taghinezhad-S S, Mohseni AH, Fu X. Intervention on gut microbiota may change the strategy for management of colorectal cancer. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2021;36:1508–1517. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15369.

Tarawneh R, Holtzman DM. The clinical problem of symptomatic Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 2012;2(5):a006148. https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a006148

Tilg H, Adolph TE, Gerner RR, Moschen AR. The Intestinal Microbiota in Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Cell. 2018;33(6):954–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2018.03.004

Tong Y, Gao H, Qi Q, Liu X, Li J, Gao J, Li P, Wang Y, Du L, Wang C. High fat diet, gut microbiome and gastrointestinal cancer. Theranostics 2021;11(12):5889-5910. https://doi.org/10.7150/thno.56157

Unger MM, Spiegel J, Dillmann K-U, Grundmann D, Philippeit H, Bürmann J, et al. Short chain fatty acids and gut microbiota differ between patients with Parkinson’s disease and age-matched controls. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. 2016;32:66–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2016.08.019

Vogt NM, Kerby RL, Dill-McFarland KA, Harding SJ, Merluzzi AP, Johnson SC, et al. Gut microbiome alterations in Alzheimer’s disease. Scientific Reports. 2017;7(1):13537. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13601-y

Wang B, Yao M, Lv L, Ling Z, Li L. The human microbiota in health and disease. Engineering. 2017a;3(1):71–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.01.008

Wang D, Li Q, Gong Y, Yuan Y. The association between vacA or cagA status and eradication outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection: A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2017b;12(5):e0177455. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177455

Wang HX, Wang YP. Gut microbiota-brain axis. Chinese Medical Journal. 2016;129(19):2373–80. https://doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.190667

Wang LW, Tancredi DJ, Thomas DW. The prevalence of gastrointestinal problems in children across the United States with autism spectrum disorders from families with multiple affected members. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 2011;32(5):351–60. https://doi.org/10.1097/dbp.0b013e31821bd06a

Wong SH, Kwong TNY, Wu CY, Yu J. Clinical applications of gut microbiota in cancer biology. Seminars in Cancer Biology. 2019;55:28–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2018.05.003

Yang C, Fei Y, Qin Y, Luo D, Yang S, Kou X, et al. Bacterial flora changes in conjunctiva of rats with streptozotocin-induced Type I Diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0133021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133021

Yang T, Owen JL, Lightfoot YL, Kladde MP, Mohamadzadeh M. Microbiota impact on the epigenetic regulation of colorectal cancer. Trends in Molecular Medicine. 2013;19(12):714-725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2013.08.005

Zhang Y, Geng R, Tu Q. Gut microbial involvement in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Aging. 2021;13(9):13359-13371. https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202994

Zhou CB, Zhou YL, Fang JY. Gut microbiota in cancer immune response and immunotherapy. Trends in Cancer. 2021;7(7):647–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trecan.2021.01.010

Zhu X, Han Y, Du J, Liu R, Jin K, Yi W. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system. Oncotarget. 2017;8(32):53829–38. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17754

Downloads

Published

20-06-2022

How to Cite

Muhammadrasheed, D. S., Omar, A. H., Rasool, A. O., & Mokhtar, G. M. (2022). Microbiota and Related Disease. Advances in BioScience, 13(2), 41–53. Retrieved from https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/ab/article/view/861

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)