Advances in BioScience <p>Advances in BioScience (eISSN: 2583-0058), is an international, open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal in the area of biological sciences and published quarterly by Society of Open Science.</p> Society of Open Science en-US Advances in BioScience 2583-0058 <p>This is an open access article distributed under the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Detection of Insulin Resistance in Normoglycemic First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetics: Harbinger of Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes has a strong familial aggregation in Asian Indians, with a high prevalence among the first-degree relatives and vertical transmission through two or more generations. First-degree relatives of T2DM are at significant risk for developing T2DM.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: Evaluation of insulin resistance in normoglycemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 200 subjects were divided into two groups. Group A comprises non-diabetic first-degree relatives of T2DM patients between the age group of 20 to 50 years. Group B comprises healthy controls without a family history of T2DM. Subjects were analyzed for fasting plasma glucose level, fasting serum Insulin and fasting serum hs-CRP.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: The mean value of blood sugar level did not show a significant difference between cases and controls (92.02 ± 9.23 Vs. 91.77 ± 7.99; <em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). The mean values of insulin (12.52 ± 3.65 vs. 5.08 ± 1.42), HOMA-IR (2.86 ± 0.95 vs. 1.15 ± 0.34) and hs-CRP (2.4 ± 1.98 vs. 1.0 ± 0.38) (all <em>p</em> &lt; 0.001) increased in cases as compared to controls. Fasting serum insulin shows a positive correlation with HOMA-IR and hs-CRP (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001). HOMA-IR strongly correlates with hs-CRP and shows a positive correlation (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). Insulin and HOMA-IR shows strong positive correlation with each other (r = 0.94; <em>p</em> &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Normoglycemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients were insulin resistant compared to individuals without family history of type 2 diabetes.</p> Kamalakar Bhagwat Mane Shilpa Balaji Asegaonkar Swati Digambar Sawant Copyright (c) 2022 Copyright (c) 2021 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article. 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 13 1 1 7 Potential of Marine Algae (Seaweeds) in the Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles and their Biomedical Applications <p>Since 3000 BC, seaweeds have played an important role in human life due to their nutritional and therapeutic properties. In recent years the ability of seaweeds to biosynthesize nanoparticles has increased their potential in a variety of industrial, agricultural, and medical applications. In this review, we attempted to shed some light on the various traditional applications of seaweeds and the potential of biosynthesized nanoparticles, with a focus on the wide medical applications of biosynthesized nanoparticles in modern life.</p> Rabaa Algotiml Ali Gab-Alla Roshdi Seoudi Hussein H. Abulreesh Khaled Elbanna Copyright (c) 2022 Copyright (c) 2021 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article. 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 13 1 8 26