Advances in BioScience <p>Advances in BioScience (eISSN: 2583-0058), is an international, open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal in the area of biological sciences and published quarterly by Society of Open Science.</p> Society of Open Science en-US Advances in BioScience 2583-0058 <p>This is an open access article distributed under the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Detection of Insulin Resistance in Normoglycemic First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetics: A Case-Control Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes has a strong familial aggregation in Asian Indians, with a high prevalence among the first-degree relatives and vertical transmission through two or more generations. First-degree relatives of T2DM are at significant risk for developing T2DM.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: Evaluation of insulin resistance in normoglycemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 200 subjects were divided into two groups. Group A comprises non-diabetic first-degree relatives of T2DM patients between the age group of 20 to 50 years. Group B comprises healthy controls without a family history of T2DM. Subjects were analyzed for fasting plasma glucose level, fasting serum Insulin and fasting serum hs-CRP.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: The mean value of blood sugar level did not show a significant difference between cases and controls (92.02 ± 9.23 Vs. 91.77 ± 7.99; <em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). The mean values of insulin (12.52 ± 3.65 vs. 5.08 ± 1.42), HOMA-IR (2.86 ± 0.95 vs. 1.15 ± 0.34) and hs-CRP (2.4 ± 1.98 vs. 1.0 ± 0.38) (all <em>p</em> &lt; 0.001) increased in cases as compared to controls. Fasting serum insulin shows a positive correlation with HOMA-IR and hs-CRP (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001). HOMA-IR strongly correlates with hs-CRP and shows a positive correlation (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). Insulin and HOMA-IR shows strong positive correlation with each other (r = 0.94; <em>p</em> &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Normoglycemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients were insulin resistant compared to individuals without family history of type 2 diabetes.</p> Kamalakar Bhagwat Mane Shilpa Balaji Asegaonkar Swati Digambar Sawant Copyright (c) 2022 Copyright (c) 2021 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article. 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 13 2 1 7 Potential of Marine Algae (Seaweeds) in the Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles and their Biomedical Applications <p>Since 3000 BC, seaweeds have played an important role in human life due to their nutritional and therapeutic properties. In recent years the ability of seaweeds to biosynthesize nanoparticles has increased their potential in a variety of industrial, agricultural, and medical applications. In this review, we attempted to shed some light on the various traditional applications of seaweeds and the potential of biosynthesized nanoparticles, with a focus on the wide medical applications of biosynthesized nanoparticles in modern life.</p> Rabaa Algotiml Ali Gab-Alla Roshdi Seoudi Hussein H. Abulreesh Khaled Elbanna Copyright (c) 2022 Copyright (c) 2021 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article. 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 13 2 8 26 COVID-19 Associated Fungal infections in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh: A Descriptive Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic’s second wave in India, there has been an unprecedented rise of life-threatening cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis (RCM) by various fungi like <em>Mucor</em>, <em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Candida</em>, and others in post-COVID-19 patients, especially in presence of immunosuppressive conditions due to their invasive potential.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To assess the incidence of COVID-19 mucormycosis on routine culture methods and various risk factors associated with the second and third wave of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1st, 2021 to February 28<sup>th</sup> 2022, in the department of Microbiology, NRI medical college, and General Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. The present study included 240 specimens from suspected post-COVID mucormycosis cases. The statistical analysis of data was done using MS Excel 2010.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 240 specimens, 192 (80%) fungal isolates were isolated. Most of the cases are seen in males and the main risk factor was diabetes mellitus (89%). Most of the species isolated were <em>Mucor</em> species followed by <em>Aspergillus</em> species, <em>Candida</em> species, <em>Rhizopus</em> species, and <em>Absidia</em> species. Antifungal sensitivity of <em>Candida</em> species showed good susceptibility to azole discs.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that if infected, early diagnosis with culture, strategies to maintain a glycaemic index, and cautious use of corticosteroids, anti-fungal treatment, and surgical intervention should be sought for management, for good prognosis and less fulminant disease course can be achieved in post-COVID rhinocerebral mucormycosis cases.</p> Naseema Shaik Tharangini Karicheti Padmaja Yarlagadda Uma Penmetcha Copyright (c) 2022 Copyright (c) 2022 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article. 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 13 2 27 31 An In-Vitro Study to Compare the Dimensional Stability of Addition Silicone and Polyether Bite Registration Pastes <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The success of any prosthetic rehabilitating treatment depends on the precise mounting of casts in the articulator. However a major source of error is while taking the registration records and transferring them to the articulator. These errors can be minimized by proper selection of the materials by knowledgeable application of their properties.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The present study was conducted to find and compare the dimensional stability of polyether and addition silicone bite registration pastes, 1 hour after making of interocclusal record.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method:</strong> Materials used in the study are polyether bite registration paste (Ramitec 3M) and addition silicone bite registration paste (O – Bite – DMG). A total of 40 specimens (20 specimens from each material) were made which were divided equally into 2 groups. A metal die with two sets of parallel lines in the depression of the die created a square of 1cm in its centre and two points Point A and Point B in the right corners of the square were selected for measurements. The measurements on the die were compared with those of specimens of two groups and %dimensional change of each group was calculated and analysed statistically.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The percentage dimensional change of polyether bite registration paste had a mean of 0.3088cm while addition silicone bite registration paste had a mean of 0.1911cm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that the dimensional stability of addition silicone bite registration pastes was more than polyether bite registration pastes and the results were statistically significant.</p> Ranjith Kumar Puthanveedu Sivaprasad Krishnadas Konath Copyright (c) 2022 Copyright (c) 2022 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article. 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 13 2 32 40 Microbiota and Related Disease <p>The microbiota is a complex community of wide range of bacteria and other microorganisms that can be found in numerous parts of human body, including the gastrointestinal tract, skin, mouth, respiratory system and vaginal canal. Over 70% of the microbiota live in a mutualistic and beneficial relationship with their host. Every individual has a distinct gut microbiota composition, which play a range of roles in the food metabolic system of the host, the structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation and pathogen protection. Taxonomically there are different microorganisms categorized in the gut microbiota. Early in life, the makeup of each human intestinal microbiota is determined by the changes in infants (gestational age, delivery, dairy feeding and weaning) as well as external variables, such as the use of antibiotics. In adult life these personal and balanced cores of native microbiota are typically constant, although enterotypes, BMI levels, working-out frequency, lifestyle, cultural and nutritional habits differ from person to person. As a result, since the gut microbiota makeup of each individual is different, there is no optimal intestinal microbiota composition. However, a balanced healthy host-microorganism must be maintained in order to perform metabolic and immunological activities in an optimal manner, and avoid disease progression. There are a number of extra-intestinal disorders that lead to microbiota dysbiosis, including metabolism, neurology, and cancer. An appropriate treatment options should assist in understanding the origin and consequences of the gut microbiota balance in health and illness and also help to preserve or restore a healthy gut microbiota composition.</p> Darya Sardar Muhammadrasheed Aso Hemn Omar Aras Othman Rasool Gulstan Mudhafar Mokhtar Copyright (c) 2022 Copyright (c) 2022 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article. 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 13 2 41 52