Biodiversity and Concentration of Airborne Fungi of Suburban Weekly Market Associated Environment
Keywords:Aeromycology, Weekly market, Vegetable, Environmental factors, Extramural, Regression model
It is supposed that the vegetable markets of tropical countries are the significant source of airborne fungal spores, which are generated during transportation, handling and putrefaction. The aim of this work was to monitor the prevalence of the airborne cultivable fungi in the air of weekly market associated environments to evaluate whether the vegetable trading zone of market is a source of airborne cultivable fungal spores of weekly market environment or not. Airborne cultivable fungal spore levels were monitored by using Andersen two-stage viable (microbial) particle sampler. The Spearman correlation coefficients and stepwise linear regression analysis test was used to analyze the influence of meteorological factors on spore concentration and paired Student’s t-test was used to compare the bioload of total viable cultivable fungi of vegetable trading area and general item trading area of weekly market extramural environment, the percentage frequency and the percentage contribution of the individual genus was also reported. In both areas, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Penicillium, were the most abundant fungal types observed. The spp. of Candida was reported only at the vegetable trading area. The bioload of fungal spore presented maximum values during the Monsoon and lowest in the season of summer. There is no significant difference in quantity between the mean values of the bioload of total viable cultivable fungi of vegetable trading area and general item trading area of weekly market extramural environment were observed. For present environment, activities of animals and humans were supposed to be the key factor governing aerosolization of microorganism.
Brock, T.D. (1966). Principles of Microbial Ecology. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Shivaji, S., Chaturvedi, P., Begum, Z., Pindi, P.K., Manorama, R., Padmanaban, D.A., Shouche, Y.S., Pawar, S., Vaishampayan, P., Dutt, C.B., Datta, G.N., Manchanda, R.K., Rao, U.R., Bhargava, P.M. & Narlikar, J.V. (2009). Janibacter hoylei sp. nov., Bacillus isronensis sp. nov. and Bacillus aryabhattai sp. nov., isolated from cryotubes used for collecting air from the upper atmosphere. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 59(Pt 12): 2977–2986. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.002527-0.
al-Dagal, M. & Fung, D.Y. (1990). Aeromicrobiology--a review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 29(5): 333–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408399009527531.
Deighton, F.C. & Mulder, J.L. (1977). Mycocentrospora acerina as a human pathogen. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 69(2): 326–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(77)80058-2.
Verma, K.S. (1989). Atomspheric biopollutants in rural and urban sites of Jabalpur city. Frontr. Bot. II & III (1, 2): 57-62.
Gopi, T.V., Kumar, R.P., Ravindran, P. & Nair, P.K.K. (1990). Comparative analysis of airspora of two urban localities in Kerala. Ind. J. Aerobiol., 3: 39-44.
Datta, T.R. & Jain, A.K. (1990). Aerobiological Studies at Gwalior–fungal spores in textile mill area. Bionature, 11: 77-81.
Mari Bhat, M. and Rajasab, A.H. (1991). Incidence of Airborne fungal spores at two different sites in Gulbarga during 1984-86. Indian J. Aerobiol., 4(1&2): 1-6.
Singh, A.B., Singh, A. & Pandit, T. (1999). Respiratory diseases among agricultural industry workers in India: a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med., 6(2): 115–126.
Chauhan, S.V.S. & Kulshrestha, A. (2004). Comparative incidence of fungal spores of two gardens of Agra city. Indian J. Aerobiol., 17: 12-16.
Kumar, P., Mahor, P., Goel, A.K., Kamboj, D.V. & Kumar, O. (2011). Aero-microbiological study on distribution pattern of bacteria and fungi during weekdays at two different locations in urban atmosphere of Gwalior, Central India. Sci. Res. Essays, 6(25): 5435–5441. https://doi.org/10.5897/SRE11.1485.
Streifel, A.J., Stevens, P.P. & Rhame, F.S. (1987). In-hospital source of airborne Penicillium species spores. J. Clin. Microbiol., 25(1): 1–4.
Andersen, A.A. (1958). New sampler for the collection, sizing, and enumeration of viable airborne particles. J. Bacteriol., 76(5): 471–484. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.76.5.471-484.1958.
Andersen, A.A. (1966). A sampler for respiratory health hazard assessment. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 27(2): 160–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/00028896609342810.
Senior, B.W. (1996). Examination of water, milk, food and air. In: Collee, J.G., Faser, A.G., Marmion, B.P. & Simmons, A. (eds.). Mackie and McCartney practical medical microbiology, 14th edn. Churchill Livingstone, London, pp. 883-921.
Clements, F.E. & Shear, C.L. (1954). The genera of fungi. Hafner Publishing Co., New York, pp. 496.
Barnett, H.L. & Hunter, B.B. (1972). Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. 3rd Edition, Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 241.
Dennis, R.W.G. (1978). British Ascomycetes. 2nd edition. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. pp. 585.
Alexopoulos, C.J. & Mims, C.W. (1979). Introductory Mycology. 3rd edn. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
Forbes, B.A., Sahm, D.F. & Weissfeld, A.S. (2002). Laboratory Methods in Basic Mycology. In: Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology. 11th Edition, St. Louis: Mosby. pp. 711-798.
Grantham, D. (2001). Simplified Monitoring Strategies: a guidebook on how to apply NOHSC's Exposure Standards for Atmospheric Contaminants in the Occupational Environment to Australian Hazardous Substance Legislation. Tullamarine, Vic.: Australian Institute of Occupational Hygienists (AIOH). p. 2-57.
Quinn, G.P. & Keough, M.J. (2002). Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511806384.
Verma, K.S. & Pathak, A.K. (2009). A Comparative Analysis of Forecasting Methods for Aerobiological Studies. Asian J. Exp. Sci., 23(1):193-198.
Pathak, A.K. & Verma, K.S. (2010). Extramural Aero-bacteriological Quality of Hospital Environment. Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci., 1(1): 128-135.
Verma, K.S. & Sheore, L. (1994). Aerobiota of a vegetable market at Jabalpur. J. Environ. Biol., 15(4): 325-329.
Sahney, M. & Purwar, A. (2002). Incidence of fungal airspora in the market area of Allahabad. Indian J. Aerobiol., 15: 32-45.
Adhikari, A., Sen, M.M., Gupta-Bhattacharya, S. & Chanda, S. (2004). Volumetric assessment of airborne fungi in two sections of a rural indoor dairy cattle shed. Environ. Int., 29(8): 1071–1078. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00103-X.
Sandhu, R.S., Khan, Z.U. & Randhawa, H.S. (1977). Natural occurrence of Aspergillus fumigatus in cane sugar mills. Sabouraudia, 15(3): 263–272. https://doi.org/10.1080/00362177785380091.
Chauhan, S.V.S., Kulshrestha, A. & Goyal, R. (2004). Airborne fungi of Agra city with special reference to their allergenic significance. Ind. J. Aerobiol., 17: 17-24.
Bagwan, N.B. (2010). Seasonal variations in aeromycoflora of vegetable market at Udgir, Maharashtra, India. J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 40(3): 360-364.
Oliveira, M., Ribeiro, H. & Abreu, I. (2005). Annual variation of fungal spores in atmosphere of Porto: 2003. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med., 12(2): 309–315.
Kasprzyk, I. (2008). Aeromycology--main research fields of interest during the last 25 years. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med., 15(1): 1–7.
Pathak, A.K. & Verma, K.S. (2009). Aero-bacteriological study of vegetables market at Jabalpur, Iran. J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 6(3): 187-194.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.