Biosand Filter for Removal of Chemical Contaminants from Water
Numerous reports by the United Nations and the World Health Organization have indicated a significant worldwide problem with water pollution and inaccessibility to potable drinking water. Due to technological and economical barriers, the problem with water pollution is particularly more serious for under-developed and developing countries. The present study is aimed at designing, constructing and evaluating a cost-effective biosand filter was undertaken. Results indicated the removal of up to 80% total hardness, 86% chlorides, 96% turbidity and 90% colour. Moreover, the filter’s performance was appraised by the absence of E. coli in the filtered sample. The filter describes the proven bioremediation technology and its ability to empower at-risk populations to use naturally occurring biology and readily available materials as a sustainable way to achieve the health benefits of safe drinking water.
. Indira Khurana and Romit Sen. Issues and approaches for drinking water quality in rural India: a background paper by WaterAid.
. One Billion Affected, Water.Org.
. United Nations Human Development Report, (2006).
. United Nations World Water Development Report, “Water in a Changing World”.
. Michael Lea (2008). Biological sand filters: low-cost bioremediation technique for production of clean drinking water. Current Protocols in Microbiology, Chapter 1: Unit 1G.1.1-1G.1.28.
. CAWST (2008). Biosand Filter Manual: Design, Construction, Installation, Operation and Maintenance. http://www.cawst.org/en/themes/biosand-filter.
. Barnes D. Collin and Ziff, S. (2009). The Biosand Filter, Siphon Filter and Rainwater Harvesting. pp. 25–27.
. McMahon, P.B., Tindall, J.A., Collins, J.A., Lull, K.J and Nuttle, J.R. (1995). Hydrologic and geochemical effects on oxygen uptake in bottom sediments of an effluent-dominated river. Water Resources Research, 31(10): 2561-2569.
. Duwelius, R.F. (1996). Hydraulic conductivity of the streambed, East Branch Grand Calumet River, Northern Lake County, Indiana. US Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4218.
. Lindgren, R.J. and Landon, M.K. (2000). Effects of ground-water withdrawals on the Rock River and associated valley aquifer, Eastern Rock County, Minnesota. US Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigation Report 99-4157.
. Rosenberry, D.O. (2000). Unsaturated-zone wedge beneath a large natural lake. Water Resources Research, 36(12): 3401-3409.
. Haarhoff, J. and Cleasby, J.L. (1991). Biological and physical mechanisms in slow sand filtration. In: Slow Sand Filtration. Gary Logsdon (ed.). American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp. 34-98.
. Von Huben Harry (1991). Surface Water Treatment. The New Rules. Published by the American Water Works Association, Denver.
. Rose, J.B., Sun, G.S., Gerba C.P. and Sinclair, N.A. (1991). Microbial quality and persistence of enteric pathogens in graywater from various household sources. Water Research, 25(1): 37-42.
. Fox, K.R. (1995). Turbidity as it relates to Waterborne Disease Outbreaks. Presentation at M/DBP Information Exchange. Cincinnati, OH. AWWA white paper.
. Zoeteman, B.C.J. (1980). Sensory assessment of water quality. New York, NY, Pergamon Press.
. Department of National Health and Welfare (Canada). Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality. Supporting documentation. Ottawa, 1978.
. Wesson, L.G. (1969). Physiology of the human kidney. New York, Grune and Stratton, 1969: 591.
. Sodium, chlorides, and conductivity in drinking water: a report on a WHO working group. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1978 (EURO Reports and Studies 2).
. Gregory, R. (1990). Galvanic corrosion of lead solder in copper pipework. Water and Environment Journal, 4(2):112 118.
. WHO (2009). Calcium and magnesium in drinking-water: public health significance. Geneva, World Health Organization.
. Langan, S.M. (2009). Flares in childhood eczema. Skin Therapy Letter, 14(8):1 (http://www.skintherapyletter.com/2009/14.8/2.html).
. Thomas, K.S. and Sach, T.H. (2000). A multicentre randomized controlled trial of ion-exchange water softeners for the treatment of eczema in children: protocol for the Softened Water Eczema Trial (SWET) (ISRCTN: 71423189). British Journal of Dermatology, 159(3):561–566.
. McNally, N.J., Williams, H.C., Phillips, D.R., Smallman-Raynor, M., Lewis, S., Venn, A., Britton, J. (1998). Atopic eczema and domestic water hardness. Lancet, 352(9127):527–531.
. Nasrin R. Khalili (2006). Design, Characterization, and Economic Analysis of Low-Cost Water. Fourth LACCEI International Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology (LACCET’2006). “Breaking Frontiers and Barriers in Engineering: Education, Research and Practice”. 21-23 June 2006, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.