Evaluation of Chitin as Natural Coagulant in Water Treatment
Keywords:Alum, Chitin, Coagulation, Turbidity
The use of synthetic coagulants is not regarded as suitable due to health and economic considerations. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitin as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The experiment was conducted at three different pH conditions of 6, 7 and 8. The dosages chosen were 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mg/l. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction. Hardness removal efficiency was observed to be 93% at pH 7 with 1mg/l concentration by alum whereas chitin was stable at all the pH ranges showing highest removal at 1 and 1.5mg/l with pH 7. At low concentration chitin showed marginally better performance on hardness. In conclusion, using natural coagulants results in considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.
Menkiti, M.C. & Onukwuli, O.D. (2011). Impact of pH Variation on Coag-flocculation Behaviour of Chitin Derived Coag-flocculant in Coal Washery Effluent Medium. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 10(15): 1391–1407. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2011.1015109.
WHO (2004). Guidelines for drinking water quality. Third Edition, Vol. 1, Recommendations. Printed in China by Sun Fung. 540 p.
Ghebremichael, K.A. (2004). Moringa seed and pumice as alternative natural materials for drinking water treatment. Ph.D. dissertation, Royal Institute Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
Lilliehöök, H. (2005). Use of sand filtration on river water flocculated with Moringa oleifera. Master’s thesis, Luleå University of Technology.
Ghebremichael, K.A., Gunaratna, K.R., Henriksson, H., Brumer, H. & Dalhammar, G. (2005). A simple purification and activity assay of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed. Water Res., 39(11): 2338–2344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.04.012.
Muyibi, S. & Alfugara, A. (2003). Treatment of surface water with Moringa Oleifera seed extract and alum – a comparative study using a pilot scale water treatment plant. Int. J. Environ. Stud., 60(6): 617–626. https://doi.org/10.1080/723032000087925.
Okuda, T., Baes, A.U., Nishijima, W. & Okada, M. (1999). Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed. Water Res., 33(15): 3373–3378. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00046-9.
Sharma, P., Kumari, P., Srivastava, M.M. & Srivastava, S. (2006). Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled Moringa oleifera Lam. seed powder. Bioresour. Technol., 97(2): 299–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.02.034.
Katayon, S., Noor, M.J.M.M., Asma, M., Ghani, L.A.A., Thamer, A.M., Azni, I., Ahmad, J., Khor, B.C. & Suleyman, A.M. (2006). Effects of storage conditions of Moringa oleifera seeds on its performance in coagulation. Bioresour. Technol., 97(13): 1455–1460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.07.031.
Santos, A.F.S., Argolo, A.C.C., Coelho, L.C.B.B. & Paiva, P.M.G. (2005). Detection of water soluble lectin and antioxidant component from Moringa oleifera seeds. Water Res., 39(6): 975–980. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2004.12.016.
Muyibi, S.A., Noor, M.J.M.M., Leong, T.K. & Loon, L.H. (2002). Effects of Oil Extraction from Moringa Oleifera Seeds on Coagulation of Turbid Water. Int. J. Environ. Stud., 59(2): 243–254. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207230210924.
Zhang, J., Zhang, F., Luo, Y. & Yang, H. (2006). A preliminary study on cactus as coagulant in water treatment. Process Biochem., 41(3): 730–733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2005.08.016.
Diaz, A., Rincon, N., Escorihuela, A., Fernandez, N., Chacin, E. & Forster, C.F. (1999). A preliminary evaluation of turbidity removal by natural coagulants indigenous to Venezuela. Process Biochem., 35(3): 391–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(99)00085-0.
Özacar, M. & Şengi̇l, İ.A. (2002). The Use of Tannins from Turkish Acorns (Valonia) in Water Treatment as a Coagulant and Coagulant Aid. Turkish J. Eng. Env. Sci., 26(3): 255–264.
Roussy, J., Van Vooren, M., Dempsey, B.A. & Guibal, E. (2005). Influence of chitosan characteristics on the coagulation and the flocculation of bentonite suspensions. Water Res., 39(14): 3247–3258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.05.039.
Lin, S.D., Evans, R.L. & Beuscher, D.B. (1971). Algal Removal by Alum Coagulation. Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana, Report of Investigation 68.
Ebeling, J.M., Sibrell, P.L., Ogden, S.R. & Summerfelt, S.T. (2003). Evaluation of chemical coagulation–flocculation aids for the removal of suspended solids and phosphorus from intensive recirculating aquaculture effluent discharge. Aquacult. Eng., 29(1): 23–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8609(03)00029-3.
Divakaran, R. & Sivasankara Pillai, V.N. (2002). Flocculation of river silt using chitosan. Water Res., 36(9): 2414–2418. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00436-5.
WHO & UNEP (1996). Water quality monitoring: a practical guide to the design and implementation of freshwater quality studies and monitoring programs. Edited by Jamie Bartram and Richard Ballance, London: E & FN Spon. 383 p.
Health Canada (2008). Aluminum in Drinking Water and Human Health: The facts about human and aluminum in drinking water. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. Health Protection Branch of Health Canada. Health Canada Publications, Ottawa, Ontario. pp. 1-4.
Srinivasan, P.T., Viraraghavan, T. & Subramanian, V. (1999). Aluminium in drinking water: An overview. Water SA, 25(1): 47- 55.
USEPA (2003). National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of Completion of EPA's Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards. Environmental Protection Agency. Notice 68 FR 42908.
Yarahmadi, M., Hossieni, M., Bina, B., Mahmoudian, M.H., Naimabadie, A. & Shahsavani, A. (2009). Application of Moringa oleifera Seed Extract and Polyaluminum Chloride in Water Treatment. World Appl. Sci. J., 7(8): 962-967.
Bina, B., Mehdinejad, M.H., Nikaeen, M. & Attar, H.M. (2009). Effectiveness of chitosan as natural coagulant aid in treating turbid waters. Iran. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 6: 247-52.
Li, Q. & Kegley, L. (2005). Assessing the Effectiveness and Environmental Impacts of Using Natural Flocculants to Manage Turbidity. Final Report SPR 615. Oregon Department of Transportation Research Unit and Federal Highway Administration Washington, D.C.
Tyagi, V.K., Chopra, A.K., Kazmi, A.A. & Kumar, A. (2006). Alternative Microbial Indicators of Faecal Pollution: Current Perspective. Iran. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng., 3(3): 205-216.
Qin, C., Li, H., Xiao, Q., Liu, Y., Zhu, J. & Du, Y. (2006). Water-solubility of chitosan and its antimicrobial activity. Carbohydr. Polym., 63(3): 367–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.09.023.
Bina, B. (1995). The Use of Moringa oleifera Seed as Natural Plant Coagulant in Removal of Clay Particles and E. coli. Water & Sewage, 14: 4-12.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.