Water Quality Index for Assessment of Water Quality of Duhok Lake, Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Keywords:Water Quality Index, Duhok Lake
Water quality of Duhok Lake was evaluated by Water Quality Index (WQI) technique. A water quality index provides a single number that expresses the overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water quality data into information that is understandable and usable by the public. Ten most important parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and sulfate (SO4) were taken for the calculation of WQI. The result indicated that water quality of Duhok Lake poor in the years 1999, 2000 and is poor in 2009 too. The impact of various anthropogenic activities was evident on some parameters such as the EC, alkalinity and hardness. It is suggested that monitoring of the lake is necessary for proper management. Application of the WQI is also suggested as a very helpful tool that enables the public and decision-makers to evaluate water quality of lakes in Iraq.
. Ramakrishnaiah, C.R., C. Sadashivaiah and G. Ranganna (2009). Assessment of water quality index for the groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State. E-Journal of Chemistry, 6: 523-530.
. Okeke, O.C. and A.H. Igboanua (2003). Characteristics and quality assessment of surface water and groundwater recourses of Awka Town, SE Nigeria. W. Resources Journal, 14: 71-77.
. K.A. Rahi and T. Halihan (2010). Changes in the Salinity of the Euphrates River System in Iraq. Regional Environmental Change, 10(1): 27-35.
. C. Jones, M. Sultan, E. Yan, A. Milewski, M. Hussein, A. Al-Dousari, S. Al-Kaisy and R. Becker (2008). Hydrologic Impacts of Engineering Projects on the Tigris-Euphrates System and its Marshlands. Journal of Hydrology, 353(1-2): 59-75.
. Sargaonkar and Deshpande (2003). Development of an overall index of pollution for surface water based on a general classification scheme in Indian context. Environ. Monit. Assess., 89: 43-67.
. Atulegwu, P.U. and J.D. Njoku (2004). The impact of biocides on the water quality. Int. Res. J. Eng. Sci. Technol., 1: 47-52.
. Mohammad Alam and J.K. Pathak (2010). Rapid Assessment of Water Quality Index of Ramganga River, Western Uttar Pradesh (India) Using a Computer Program. Nature and Science, 8(11).
. M.T. Shultz (2001). A Critique of EPA’s Index of Watershed Indicators. Journal of Environmental Management, 62(4): 429-442.
. Al-Ganabi, H.A. (1985). Duhok city, A study in urban geography. Univ. of Mosul., p120.
. Al-Shalash, A.H. (1966). The climate of Iraq. The Cooperative printing, Presses Workers Society. Amman. Jordan. 85pp.
. Guest, E. (1966). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 1. Ministry of Agriculture of Iraq. Baghdad. 213pp.
. Raoof, I.Y. (2002). A phycolimnological study on Duhok impoundment and its main Water shade. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Dohuk, Dohuk.
. APHA (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, 20th edition, Washington. D.C.
. World Health Organization (2004). Guidelines for Drinking- Water Quality. 3rd Edition, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.
. J.K. Pradeep (1998). Hydrogeology and Quality of Ground Water around Hirapur, District Sagar (M.P.). Pollution Research, 17(1): 91-94.
. J. Rozoska (1980). Euphrates and Tigris Mesopotamian Ecology and Destiny. In: Dr Junk, Ed., Monographiae Biologicae, The Hague-Boston-London, 1980.
. Mohamed, H.A. (2005). Physicochemical characteristics of Abu Za’baal Ponds, Egypt. Egyptian J. of Aquatic Research, 31(2): 1-15.
. Yalç?n Tepe, Aysun Türkmen, Ekrem Mutlu, Alpaslan Ateú (2005). Some Physicochemical Characteristics of Yarseli Lake, Hatay, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 5: 35-42.
. R.J. Wilcock, G.B. McBride, J.W. Nagels and G.L. Northcott (1995). Water Quality in a Polluted Lowland Stream with Chronically Depressed Dissolved Oxygen: Causes and Effects. New Zealand J. Maine and Freshwater Research, 29(2): 277-288.
. Wetzel, R.G. (1983) Limnology. 2nd Edition, Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. 2nd ed. 767 pp.