Lead, Nickel and Copper Concentration and Related Factors in Some Uncooked Vegetables Irrigated by Wastewater
Keywords:Wastewater, Pb, Ni, Cu, Bioaccumulation, Lettuce, Cress, Dill, Radish
Population density of Erbil City, Northern Iraq (where this work was carried out) estimated as more than 2 million. The sewage discharge of the city may reach 77760m3/ day during low level and 108000m3/ day during high-level periods. About 225 hectares of scattered farmlands are used by local farmers for production of uncooked vegetables for local need, all of which are irrigated by untreated sewage water. In the present work, about 28 physical and chemical variables those related to sewage water quality were assessed on fortnightly bases for 7 months. Some toxic heavy metals, namely; Pb, Ni and Cu bioaccumulation rates in sewage, soil and some uncooked vegetables in five different locations/ farms were followed up (only bioaccumulation rates of Pb, Ni and Cu in lettuce, cress, dill and radish are given here) (Full data can be obtained from both authors). Onset results revealed that Pb, Ni and Cu bioaccumulation rates calculated for lettuce, cress, dill and radish were surpassed maximum permissible levels (MPL). However, the bioaccumulation ranges calculated for lettuce, cress, dill and radish respectively were; lead (3.01-6.72mg/ kg/ dwt), (3.03-6.52mg/ kg/ dwt), (0.48-2.74mg/ kg/ dwt) and (0.41-3.00mg/ kg/ dwt); nickel (1.01-3.92mg/ kg/ dwt), (4.03-7.99mg/ kg/ dwt), (0.37-3.98mg/ kg/ dwt) and (1.00-3.95mg/ kg/ dwt) and copper (8.02-15.26mg/ kg/ dwt), (7.20-13.62mg/ kg/ dwt),(6.35-10.37mg/ kg/ dwt), (2.01-5.94mg/ kg/ dwt). The studied vegetables were showed different modes concerning heavy metal accumulation rates.
. Butt, M.S., Sharif, K., Bajwa, B.E. and Aziz, A. (2005). Hazardous effects of sewage water on the environment: Focus on heavy metals and chemical composition of soil and vegetables. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 16(4): 338-346.
. LeCoultre, T.D. (2001). A meta-analysis and risk assessment of heavy metal uptake in common garden vegetables. M.Sc. Thesis, East Tennessee State University, USA.
. Okoronkwo, N.E., Igwe, J.C. and Onwuchekwa, E.C. (2005). Risk and health implications of polluted soils for crop production. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(13):1521-1524.
. Ryan, J., Estefan, G. and Rashid, A. (2001). Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual. Second edition. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria. 172 pp.
. Somani, L.L. and Kanthaliya, P.C. (2004). Soils and Fertilizers at a Glance. First Edition. Agrotech Publishing Academy, Udaipur.
. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/ World Health Organization (WHO). Codex Alimentarius Commission (2001). Food additives and contaminants. Food Standards Programme, 1-289p.
. Darmody, R.G., Marlin, J.C., Talbott, J., Green, R.A., Brewer, E.F. and Stohr, C. (2004). Ecological risk assessment, Dredged Illinois river sediment: plant growth and metal uptake. J. Environ. Qual., 33: 458-464.
. Grace, N. (2004). Assessment of heavy metal contamination of food crops and vegetables from motor vehicle emissions in Kampala City, Uganda. Department of Botany Makerere University, Kampala. A technical report submitted to IDRC-AGROPOLIS.
. Emongor, V. (2007). Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions of varied pH by kale plants (Brasicca oleraceae var acephala). J. Agric. Food Envt. Sci., 1(2): 1-8.
. Pendias, A.K. and Pendias, H. (1992). Elements of group VIII. In: Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, Boca Raton: CRC press, 271-276.
. Bohn, H.L., McNeal, B.L. and O’Connor, G.A. (2001). Soil Chemistry, Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.
. Sulaivany, R.O.H. (2005). Heavy metal contamination in some vegetables irrigated by wastewater of Duhok city- Kurdistan region-Iraq. M.Sc. Thesis, Univ. of Duhok.
. Bartram, J. and Balance, R. (1996). Water Quality Monitoring: a practical guide to the design and implementation of freshwater quality studies and monitoring programmes. United Nations Environmental Programme- UNEP- and WHO. E & FN Spon, an imprint of Chapman & Hall. London, U.K. 383 pp.
. Abdulbary, A. (2000). Environmental Pollution, Soil and Plant. College of Agriculture, Univ. of Zakazik, Egypt. Universities publishing House, pp. 232–240.
. Weigert, P. (1991). Metal loads of food of vegetable origin including mushrooms. In: Merian E, Clarkson TW (eds). Metals and Their Compounds in the Environment: Occurrence, Analysis and Biological Relevance. USA: VCH Publishers, 458-468.
. Zolotov, Y.A., Malofeeva, G.I., Petrukhin, O.M. and Timerbaev, A.R. (1987). New methods for preconcentration and determination of heavy metals in natural water. Pure & Appl. Chem., 59 (4): 497-504.
. Kachenko, A. and Singh, B. (2004). Heavy Metals Contamination of Home Grown Vegetables Near Metal Smelter in NSW. 3rd Australian New Zealand Soils Conference, December 2004, University of Sydney, Australia, pp 5-9.
. Hashmi, D.R., Ismail, S. and Shaikh, G.H. (2007). Assessment of the level of trace metals in commonly edible vegetables locally available in the markets of Karachi city. Pak. J. Bot., 39(3): 747-751.