Algal Flora on some springs within Sherwan Mazn Subdistrict, Erbil–Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Iraq

Authors

  • Samiaa Jamil Abdulwahid Department of General Science, Faculty of Education, School of Basic Education, Soran University, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

Keywords:

Erbil, Sherwan Mazn, Algae, Springs

Abstract

This paper describes the first study of algal assemblages at 6 spring sites within Sherwan Mazn subdistrict between October 2011 to March 2012, with particular reference to abundance, distribution and periodicity were investigated in the samples collected. A total of 42 species was identified in 3 divisions, among them, 24 taxa was belonged of Bacillariophyta, 13 taxa was Chlorophyta and 5 taxa was Cyanophyta. The seasonality of algal flora was decreased at all springs in December and January. The dominant species among non-diatoms were, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, Tribonema, Vaucheria and Spirogyra whereas among the diatoms were Navicula, Syndra, Gomphonema, and Nitzschia.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Klemenčič, A.K. (2004). Algal flora of four different springs in Slovenia. Annales. Ser. Hist. Nat., 14(1): 85-92.

Leghari, M.K., Waheed, S.B. & Leghari, M.Y. (2001). Ecological study of algal flora of Kunhar River of Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 33: 629–636.

Sato, H., Ihira, M., Matsuda, I. & Kumano, S. (1997). Diatom assemblages and sedimentary environments during the mid- to late-Holocene at the Mokoto site along the Okhotsk Sea in Hokkaido, Japan. Diatom, 13: 193–199. https://doi.org/10.11464/diatom1985.13.0_193.

Rinella, D.J. & Bogan, D.L. (2004). Toward a diatom biological monitoring index for Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, streams. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Environment and Natural Resources Institute, University of Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska.

Hu, C.-X. & Liu, Y.-D. (2003). Primary succession of algal community structure in desert soil. Acta Botanica Sinica, 45(8): 917-924.

Nikulina, V.N. (2003). Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in the inner Neva Estuary in the 1980s and 1990s. Oceanologia, 45(1): 25-39.

Hirano, M. (1973). Freshwater algae from Mesopotamia. Contr. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 24(2): 105.

Maulood, B.K. & Hinton, G.C.F. (1978). Observations of the algal flora of the Sulaimaniyah area [Iraq], 1: Green and blue green algae. Zanco. Series A. Pure and Applied Sciences. 4(1): 55-75.

Maulood, B.K. & Toma, J.J. (2004). CheckList of Algae in Iraq. Journal of Babylon University. Series C3, Pure and Applied Science, 9(3): 1-71.

Aziz, F.H. (2011). Checklist of the Algae in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Zanco J. Pure Appl. Sci., 23(3): 31-72.

WHO (‎2004)‎. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Vol. 1, Recommendations, 3rd ed. World Health Organization.

Al-Ansari, N.A., Essaid, H.I. & Salim, Y.N. (1981). Water resources in Iraq. J. Geol. Soc. Iraq, 14(1): 35–42.

Guest, E. (1966). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 1. Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq.

FAO (2003). Agro-Ecological Zoning of the three Northern Governorates of Iraq. Erbil-Section, Food Agriculture Organization.

Anon (2001). Kurdistan today. News Bull. Publ. by the Kurdistan Region Government (KRG) Information Office. Vol. 1. Issue 8.

Bartram. J. & Rees, G. (2000). Monitoring Bathing Waters - A Practical Guide to the Design and Implementation of Assessments and Monitoring Programmes. World Health Organization.

Barsanti, L. & Gualtieri, P. (2006). Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Biotechnology. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA.

Kumar, S. & Kashyap, A.S. (2003). Manual of Practical Algae. Campus Books International, New Delhi.

Patrick, R.M. & Reimer, C.W. (1966) The Diatoms of the United States exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. Vol. 1, Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 13.

Komárek, J. & Anagnostidis, K. (2005). Cyanoprokaryota. 2. Teil/2nd: Oscillatoriales. In: Büdel, B., Krienitz, L., Gärtner, G. & Schagerl, M. (Eds.), Süβwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, vol. 19/2. Elsevier/Spektrum, Heidelberg, pp. 1–759.

Smith, G.M. (1950). The Fresh-water Algae of the United States. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Venkataraman, G.S. (1961). Vaucheriaceae. New Delhi: Indian Council for Agricultural Research. pp. 112.

Taft, C.E. & Kishler, W.J. (1967). Algae from Western Lake Erie. Ohio J. Sci., 68(2): 80-83.

Prescott, G.W. (1970). How to Know the Fresh Water Algae. 2nd Ed., William C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa.

Patrick, R.M. & Reimer, C.W. (1975). The Diatoms of the United States exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. Vol. 2: Part 1. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 13.

Bourrelly, P. (1968). Les Algues d'eau douce : initiation à la systématique. Tome II, p Les Algues jaunes et brunes. Chrysophycées, Phéophycées, Xanthophycées et Diatomées. N. Boubée & Cie, Paris. 438 pp.

Germain, H. (1981). Flore des diatomées - Diatomophycées- eaux douces et saumâtres du Massif Armoricain et des contrées voisines d'Europe occidentale Collection "Faunes et Flores Actuelles". Société Nouvelle des Editions Boubée, Paris. 444 pp.

APHA (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.

Aziz, F.H. (2008). Further contribution of algae in higher mountain areas to Iraqi Flora. Zanco J. Pure Appl. Sci.. 4(20): 63-82.

Wetzel, R.G. (1975). Limnology. 1st ed. W.B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia.

Al-Tayyar, T.A., Shihab, A.S. & Al-Allaf, M.A. (2008). Some environmental features of phytoplankton in Mosul dam lake. J. Dohuk Univ., 11(1): 125-135.

Vijayakumar, S., Thajuddin, N. & Manoharan, C. (2007). Biodiversity of Cyanobacteria in industrial effluents. Acta bot. malacit., 32: 27-34. http://hdl.handle.net/10630/3718.

Datla, P. & Thomas, S.S. (2011). The Role of Parry Organic Spirulina in Radiation Protection. Parry Nutraceuticals, Valensa International, Florida.

Abdulwahid, S.J. (2008). A phycolimnological study on some springs within Harir sub-district. Hawler-Kurdistan region of Iraq. M.Sc. Thesis. Univ. of Salahaddin–Hawler, Iraqi Kurdistan region.

John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. (Eds) (2002). The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. An Identification Guide to Freshwater and Terrestrial Algae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Ivana, J. (2004). Benthic algal community structure and water quality of the Zapadna Morava River Basin near Cacak. Acta Agriculturae Serbica, IX(18): 13-33.

O'Neal, S.W., Lembi, C.A. & Spencer, D.F. (1985). Productivity of the filamentous alga Pithophora oedogonia (Chlorophyta) in Surrey Lake, Indiana. J. Phycol., 21(4): 562–569. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.1985.00562.x.

John, J. (2004). Diatom prediction and classification system for urban streams : a model from Perth, Western Australia. Occasional paper (Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation (Australia)): 13/99.

Sabater, S. & Roca, J.R. (1990). Some factors affecting distribution of diatom assemblages in Pyrenean springs. Freshwater Biology, 24(3): 493–507. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.1990.tb00727.x.

Bahls, L.L. (2003). Biological Integrity of South Cotton Wood Creek and the Lower Gallatin River Based on the Structure and Composition of the Benthic Algae Community. Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Helena, Montana.

Ács É. Szabó K., Tóth B. & Kiss K.T. (2004). Investigations of benthic algal community (with special attention to bentic diatoms) in connection with reference conditions in WFD. Acta Bot. Hung., 46: 255–278. https://doi.org/10.1556/abot.46.2004.3-4.1.

Kufel, L., Pasztaleniec, A., Czapla, G., Biardzka, E. & Strzalek, M. (2007). Constitutive allelochemicals from Stratiotes aloides l. Affect both biomass and community structure of phytoplankton. Pol. J. Ecol., 55(2): 387–393.

Sahin, B., Akar, B. & Bahceci, I. (2010). Species composition and diversity of epipelic algae in Balik Lake (Savsat-Artvin, Turkey). Turk. J. Bot., 34(5): 441-448. http://doi.org/10.3906/bot-0912-290.

Polge, N., Sukatar, A., Soylu, E.N. & Gönülol, A. (2010). Epipelic algal flora in the Küçükçekmece Lagoon. Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 10(1): 39–45. http://doi.org/10.4194/trjfas.2010.0106.

Downloads

Published

01-10-2012

How to Cite

Abdulwahid, S. J. (2012). Algal Flora on some springs within Sherwan Mazn Subdistrict, Erbil–Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Iraq. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology, 3(4), 293–301. Retrieved from https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/142

Issue

Section

Articles