Short-term exposure to quinalphos induced biochemical and haematological changes in freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus
Keywords:Quinalphos, Haemoglobin, Fish, Oxygen Consumption, Glucose
The toxic impact of quinalphos, an organothiophosphate, on the biochemical as well as haematological parameters was studied in the adult freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. In the present study, 0.5µl/ L quinalphos was chosen to represent sublethal concentration for 48 and 96 hours as short-term exposure and respective control animals were maintained. Quinalphos induced toxic stress to the exposed fishes, which is obvious by the reduction in the oxygen consumption of the fishes at the time of exposure and this could be due to shrinkage of the respiratory epithelium or possibly due to mucus accumulation on gills. Decrease in the haemoglobin content was observed and this may be due to either an increase in the rate at which the haemoglobin is destroyed or decreased rate of haemopoietic potential of the fish. In the present study, the significant increase in WBC count indicates hypersensitivity of leucocytes to quinalphos and these changes may be due to immunological reactions to produce antibodies to cope up with the stress. Decrease in the level of RBC count indicated decrease in erythropoietic activity or severe anemic state. Reduction in the plasma and tissue protein of quinalphos exposed fishes may be due to its utilization to mitigate the energy demand when the fishes are under stress. Increase of plasma glucose and the total glucose content in tissues like liver, muscle and gill might have resulted from gluconeogenesis to provide energy for the increased metabolic demands imposed by quinalphos stress. Thus the biochemical and hematological alterations due to acute short-term exposure to quinalphos were due to the toxic stress of the toxicant.
Abidi, R. & Srivastava, U.S. (1988). Effect of endosulfan on certain aspects of hematology of the fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India Sect. B, 58: 55-65.
Blaxhall, P.C. & Daisley, K.W. (1973). Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. J. Fish Biol., 5(6): 771–781. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1973.tb04510.x.
Borah, S. & Yadav, R.N.S. ( 1995). Static bioassays and toxicity of two pesticides, rogor and endosulfan to the air-breathing fish, Heteropneustes fossilis with special reference to behaviour. Pollut. Res., 14: 435-438.
Busacker, G.P., Adelman, I.R. & Goolish, E.M. (1990). Growth. In: Schreck, C.B. & Moyle, P.B. (Eds.), Methods for fish biology. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda. pp. 363–387.
Chandravathy, V.M. & Reddy, S.L.N. (1994). In vivo recovery of protein metabolism in gill and brain of a freshwater fish, Anabas scandens after exposure to lead nitrate. J. Environ. Biol., 15(1): 75-82.
Chitra, K.C., Pushpalatha, E. & Kannan, V.M. (2012). Quinalphos Induced Antioxidant Status and Histopathological Changes in the Gill of the Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. J. Adv. Lab. Res. Biol., 3(2): 85–90.
Drabkin, D.L. (1946). Spectrophotometric studies XIV. The crystallographic and optical properties of the hemoglobin of man in comparison with those of other species. J. Biol. Chem., 164(2): 703–723.
Finney, D.J. (1971). Probit analysis. 3rd Ed., Cambridge University Press, London, pp. 333.
Harington, J.S., Miller, K. & Macnab, G. (1971). Hemolysis by asbestos. Environ Res., 4(2): 95–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-9351(71)90038-7.
Joshi, P.K., Bose, M. & Harish, D. (2002). Haematological changes in the blood of Clarias batrachus exposed to mercuric chloride. J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit., 12(2): 119-122.
Künnemann, H. & Bashamohideen, M. (1978). A quick and modified Winkler-method for measuring O2-consumption of aquatic animals. Experientia, 34(9): 1242–1243. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01922984.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. & Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193(1): 265–275.
Maheswaran, R., Devapaul, A., Muralidharan, S., Velmurugan, B. & Ignacimuthu, S. (2008). Haematological studies of fresh water fish, Clarias batrachus (L.) exposed to mercuric chloride. Int. J. Integr. Biol., 2: 49-54.
Mushigeri, S.B. & David, M. (2003). Assessment of Fenvelerate toxicity on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in the freshwater fish, Cirrhinus mrigala. J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monitoring, 13: 191–195.
Nemcsók, J. & Boross, L. (1982). Comparative studies on the sensitivity of different fish species to metal pollution. Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung., 33(1): 23–27.
Prosser, C.L & Brown, F.A. (Eds.) (1973). Comparative Animal Physiology. 3rd edition, W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia.
Reddy, P.M. & Bashamohideen, M. (1989). Fenvalerate and Cypermethrin Induced Changes in the Haematological Parameters of Cyprinus carpio. Acta Hydroch. Hydrob., 17(1): 101–107. https://doi.org/10.1002/aheh.19890170116.
Rusia, V. & Sood, S.K. (1992). Routine hematological tests. In: Mukerjee, K.L. (eds), Medical laboratory technology. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, pp. 252–258.
Adhikari, S., Sarkar, B., Chatterjee, A., Mahapatra, C.T. & Ayyappan, S. (2004). Effects of cypermethrin and carbofuran on certain hematological parameters and prediction of their recovery in a freshwater teleost, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 58(2): 220–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2003.12.003.
Seth, N. & Saxena, K.K. (2003). Hematological responses in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus due to fenvalerate. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 71(6): 1192–1199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-003-8732-1.
Smit, G.L., Hattingh, J. & Burger, A.P. (1979). Haematological assessment of the effects of the anaesthetic MS 222 in natural and neutralized form in three freshwater fish species: interspecies differences. J. Fish Biol., 15(6): 633–643. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1979.tb03672.x.
Soyingbe, A.A., Ogunyanwo, O.O., Hammed, T.B. & Adesope, A.O. (2012). Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis Niloticus). IOSR J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. Food Technol., 1: 22-25.
Tilak, K.S. & Satyavardhan, K. (2002). Effect of fenvalerate on oxygen consumption and haematological parameters in the fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). J. Aquat. Biol., 17: 81-86.
Trinder, P. (1969). Determination of Glucose in Blood Using Glucose Oxidase with an Alternative Oxygen Acceptor. Ann. Clin. Biochem., 6(1): 24–27. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F000456326900600108.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2013 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.