Enhancement of Cotton Stalks Composting with Certain Microbial Inoculations
Keywords:Composting, Composting cotton stalks, Chicken manure, Azotobacter chroococcum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium
Effect of inoculation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Azotobacter chroococcum microbes on cotton stalks composting was studied in an attempt to achieve rapid maturity and desirable characteristics of produced compost. Composting process was maintained for 16 weeks under aerobic conditions with proper moisture content and turning piles. The C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to about 30:1 before composting using chicken manure. Temperature evolution and its profile were monitored throughout the composting period. Mineralization rates of organic matter and changes in nitrogen content during composting stages were evaluated. Total plate count of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, cellulose decomposers and Azotobacter were determined during composting periods. The treatment of cotton stalks inoculated with both P. chrysosporium and Azotobacter gave the most desirable characteristics of the final product with respect to the narrow C/N ratio, high nitrogen content and high numbers of Azotobacter. The phytotoxicity test of compost extracts was evaluated. The use of P. chrysosporium in composting accelerated markedly decomposition process, so that 16 weeks composting enough to produce a stable and mature compost suitable for use as fertilizer while the fertilizer obtained by composting cotton stalks mixed with chicken manure and inoculated with microorganisms is highest quality Compost.
Abd El-Gawad, A.M. (2008). Employment of Biotechnology in Recycling of Plant Wastes for Improving Plant Production under Siwa Conditions. Res. J. Agric. & Biol. Sci., 4(5): 566-574.
Jouraiphy, A., Amir, S., El Gharous, M., Revel, J.-C. & Hafidi, M. (2005). Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformation during composting of sewage sludge and green plant waste. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 56(2): 101–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2005.06.002.
Abdel Wahab, A.M. (1980). Characterization of nitrogen-fixing (C2H2-reducing) Bacillus species from Egyptian soils. Z. Allg. Mikrobiol., 20(8): 487–494.
Abd El-Wahab, A.F.M. (1999). Iron-Zinc-Organic wastes interactions and their effects on biological nitrogen fixation in newly reclaimed soils. Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt.
Allen, O.N. (1959). Experiments in soil bacteriology. 3rd ed., Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, USA.
Asamudo, N.U., Daba, A.S. & Ezeronye, O.U. (2005). Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 4(13): 1548-1553.
El-Din, S.M.S.B. & Abo-Sedera, S.A. (2001). Acceleration of composting of sugar beet haulms using two highly effective cellulose decomposing microorganisms. Egypt. J. Microbiol., 36(2): 161-174.
Bishop, P.L. & Godfrey, C. (1983). Nitrogen transformations during sludge composting. BioCycle, 24: 34–39.
Dalzell, H.W., Riddlestone, A.J., Gray, K.R. & Thurairajan, K. (1987). Soil management: compost production and use in tropical and subtropical environments. FAO Soils Bulletin no. 56, FAO Rome.
de Bertoldi, M., Vallini, G. & Pera, A. (1983). The biology of composting: A review. Waste Manage. Res., 1(2): 157–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/0734-242X(83)90055-1.
Dewes, Th. (1995). Nitrogen losses from manure heaps. In: Nitrogen leaching in ecological agriculture. AB Academic Publishers, pp. 309–317.
DIFCO (1984). DIFCO Manual: Dehydrated Culture Media and Reagents for Microbiology, 10th Edition. DIFCO Laboratories, Detroit, MI.
El-Housseini, M.M., Soheir, F.S. & Emad, A.H. (2000). Co-compost production from agricultural wastes and sewage sludge. Proceeding of the Tenth Microbiology Conference, Cairo, Egypt, 11-14 Nov. 2000, pp. 295-315.
Estafanous, A.N. (2003). Amendment of rice straw with rock phosphate and certain microbial inoculants for production of high quality compost. Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., 18: 441-456.
El-Sharawy, M.A.O., Aziz, M.A., Laila, A & Ali, K.M. (2003). Effect of the application of plant residues composts on some soil properties and yield of wheat and corn plants. Egyptian Journal of Soil Science, 43(3): 421-434.
Rashad, F.M., Saleh, W.D. & Moselhy, M.A. (2010). Bioconversion of rice straw and certain agro-industrial wastes to amendments for organic farming systems: 1. Composting, quality, stability and maturity indices. Bioresour. Technol., 101(15): 5952–5960. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.103.
Feng, C.L., Zeng, G.M., Huang, D.L., Hu, S., Zhao, M.H., Lai, C., Huang, C., Wei, Z. & Li, N.J. (2011). Effect of ligninolytic enzymes on lignin degradation and carbon utilization during lignocellulosic waste composting. Process Biochem., 46(7): 1515-1520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2011.01.038.
Zvomuya, F., Helgason, B.L., Larney, F.J., Janzen, H.H., Akinremi, O.O. & Olson, B.M. (2006). Predicting phosphorus availability from soil-applied composted and non-composted cattle feedlot manure. J. Environ. Qual., 35(3): 928–937. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0409.
Gajdos, R. (1992). The use of organic waste materials as organic fertilizers-recycling of plant nutrients. Acta Hortic., 302: 325-334.
Gaur, A.C. (1987). Recycling of organic wastes by improved techniques of composting and other methods. Resources and Conservation, 13(2): 157–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-3097(87)90059-9.
Huang, H.L., Zeng, G.M., Tang, L., Yu, H.Y., Xi, X.M., Chen, Z.M. & Huang, G.H. (2008). Effect of biodelignification of rice straw on humification and humus quality by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Streptomyces badius. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 61(4): 331–336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2007.06.014.
Kaloosh, A.A. (1994). Changes in composition of a compost prepared from different organic materials and its effect on Vicia faba yield. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 19: 829-836.
Kapich, A.N., Prior, B.A., Botha, A., Galkin, S., Lundell, T. & Hatakka, A. (2004). Effect of lignocellulose-containing substrates on production of ligninolytic peroxidases in submerged cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME-446. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 34(2): 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2003.10.004.
Kapoor, K.K., Yadav, K.S., Singh, D.P., Mishra, M.M. & Tauro, P. (1983). Enrichment of compost by Azotobacter and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. Agricultural Wastes, 5: 125-133.
Kumar, R., Verma, D., Singh, B.L., Kumar, U. & Shweta (2010). Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting. Bioresour. Technol., 101(17): 6707–6711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.03.111.
Kumar, R. & Shweta (2011). Enhancement of wood waste decomposition by microbial inoculation prior to vermicomposting. Bioresour. Technol., 102(2): 1475–1480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.090.
McMahon, V., Garg, A., Aldred, D., Hobbs, G., Smith, R. & Tothill, I.E. (2008). Composting and bioremediation process evaluation of wood waste materials generated from the construction and demolition industry. Chemosphere, 71(9): 1617–1628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.01.031.
Meunchang, S., Panichsakpatana, S. & Weaver, R.W. (2005). Co-composting of filter cake and bagasse; by-products from a sugar mill. Bioresour. Technol., 96(4): 437–442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.05.024.
Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. & Keeney, D.R. (1982). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy & Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.
Kersten, P. & Cullen, D. (2007). Extracellular oxidative systems of the lignin-degrading Basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Fungal Genet. Biol., 44(2): 77–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2006.07.007.
Rebollido, R., Martínez, J., Aguilera, Y., Melchor, K., Koerner, I. & Stegmann, R. (2008). Microbial populations during composting process of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res., 6(3): 61-67.
Requena, N., Azcón, R. & Baca, M.T. (1996). Chemical changes in humic substances from compost due to incubation with lingo-cellulolytic microorganisms and effects on lettuce growth. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 45: 857-863.
Rovira, A.D. (1956). Plant root excretions in relation to the rhizosphere effect. I. The nature of root exudate from oats and peas. Plant Soil, 7(2): 178–194. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01343726.
Russell, E.W. (1989). Soil Conditions and Plant Growth, ELBS edition of eleventh edition, 1988, Reprinted 1989.
Seldin, L., Van Elsas, J.D. & Penido, E.G.C. (1984). Bacillus azotofixans sp. nov., a Nitrogen-Fixing Species from Brazilian Soils and Grass Roots. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 34(4): 451–456. https://doi.org/10.1099/00207713-34-4-451.
Selim, Sh.M., Zayed, M.S. & Atta, H.M. (2012). Evaluation of phytotoxicity of compost during composting process. Nature and Science, 10(2): 69-77.
Shi, J.-G., Zeng, G.-M., Yuan, X.-Z., Dai, F., Liu, J. & Wu, X.-H. (2006). The stimulatory effects of surfactants on composting of waste rich in cellulose. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 22(11): 1121–1127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-006-9152-2.
Singh, A. & Sharma, S. (2002). Composting of a crop residue through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting. Bioresour. Technol., 85(2): 107–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-8524(02)00095-0.
Taha, S.M., Zayed, M.N. & Zohdy, L. (1968). Bacteriological and chemical studies in rice straw compost. 3. Effect of ammoniacal nitrogen. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg., 122(5): 500–509.
Tiquia, S.M., Tam, N.F.Y. & Hodgkiss, I.J. (1996). Effects of composting on phytotoxicity of spent pig-manure sawdust litter. Environ. Pollut., 93(3): 249–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(96)00052-8.
Tiquia, S.M. & Tam, N.F. (1998). Composting of spent pig litter in turned and forced-aerated piles. Environ. Pollut., 99(3): 329–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0269-7491(98)00024-4.
Wong, J.W.C., Mak, K.F., Chan, N.W., Lam, A., Fang, M., Zhou, L.X., Wu, Q.T. & Liao, X.D. (2001). Co-composting of soybean residues and leaves in Hong Kong. Bioresour. Technol., 76(2): 99–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(00)00103-6.
Yu, H., Zeng, G., Huang, H., Xi, X., Wang, R., Huang, D., Huang, G. & Li, J. (2007). Microbial community succession and lignocellulose degradation during agricultural waste composting. Biodegradation, 18(6): 793–802. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10532-007-9108-8.
Zhu, N. (2007). Effect of low initial C/N ratio on aerobic composting of swine manure with rice straw. Bioresour. Technol., 98(1): 9–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.12.003.
Zeng, G., Huang, D., Huang, G., Hu, T., Jiang, X., Feng, C., Chen, Y., Tang, L. & Liu, H. (2007). Composting of lead-contaminated solid waste with inocula of white-rot fungus. Bioresour. Technol., 98(2): 320–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.01.001.
Zeng, G., Yu, M., Chen, Y., Huang, D., Zhang, J., Huang, H., Jiang, R. & Yu, Z. (2010). Effects of inoculation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium at various time points on enzyme activities during agricultural waste composting. Bioresour. Technol., 101(1): 222–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.013.
Zucconi, F., Pera, A., Forte, M. & De Bertoldi, M. (1981). Evaluating toxicity of immature compost. Biocycle, 22(2): 54–57.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.