Effect of Processing on Total Amino Acid Profile of Maize and Cowpea Grains
Keywords:Cereal grains processing, Cereal proteins, Sprouting, Drying
During the processing of cereal grains, a substantial proportion of the nutrients are lost, most especially the proteins in the form of the smallest moiety called amino acids. The objective of this study is to investigate the proportional loss due to processing, in order to throw more light in external fortification of the processed grains as may be necessary for the future.
This investigation carried out the amino acid profile of drum dried; freeze dried and spray dried products of processed maize and cowpea grains in order to establish the after effects of these processing methods on the amino acid profile of the residual products. The processed methods investigated have been reported to be ideal for the preservation of processed grains in the powdered forms and amino acids availability in the products will determine the final protein nutritional value of the processed food products.
. AKINRELE, I.A. and BASSIR, O. (1967). The Nutritive value of “ogi” a Nigerian infant food. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 70:279-280.
. AKINRELE, I.A. and EDWARDS, C.A. (1971). An assessment of the nutritive value of a maize-soya mixture, ‘Soy-Ogi’, as a weaning food in Nigeria. Brit. Nutr., 26: 177-185.
. BENDER, A.E. (1971). Processing damage to protein foods. Paper presented at 18th PAG. Meeting Room (1971), PAG Bull., p 10-19.
. CHICK, H. (1951). Nutritive value of vegetable proteins and its enhancement by admixture. Brit. J. Nutri., 5:261.
. DESIKACHAR, H.S.R. (1976). Processing of sorghum and millets for versatile food uses in India. Int. J. Protein Res., 1:81.
. ELIAS, L.G. and BRESSANI, R. (1971). Improvement of the protein quality of corn bean diets by the use of fortified corn or opaque-2 corn. In: III Western Hemisphere Nutrition Congress, Bal harbour, Miami, Florida, U.S., August 30/September 2.
. FETUGA, B.L., BABATUNDE, G.M. and OYENUGA, V.A. (1974). Protein quality of some unusual protein foodstuffs. Studies on the African locust bean seed (Parkia filicoidea Welw.). Brit. J. Nutr., 32: 27-36.
. GOUSSAULT, B. and ADRIAN, J. (1976). The milling of Pennisetum millet and the value of the protein of the product. Dendy, D.A.V. ed., Proceedings of a symposium on sorghum and millets for human food, Vienna. Trop. Products Inst., p.13.
. JONES, D.B. and DIVINE, J.P. (1944). The protein nutritional value of soybean, peanut and cottonseed flours and their value as supplements to wheat flour. J. Nutr., 28: 41-49.
. KENT, N.L. (ed.) (1980). Maize, sorghum, millet; Processing, nutritional attributes, technological uses. In: Technology of Cereals. 2nd edn. Pergamon Press, Oxford UK.
. LADIPO, J.K. (1977). Proceedings of cereals and pulses in Nigeria. II. Technological practices in the processing of cereals and legumes in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the launching of the first annual conference of Nigerian Inst. Food Science and Technology, 1:20.
. MASSIEU, G.H., GUZMAN, J., CRAVIOTO, R.O. and CALVO, J. (1949). Determination of some essential amino acids in several uncooked and cooked Mexican foodstuffs. J. Nutr., 38: 293-304.
. MITCHELL, H.H. and BEADLES, J.R. (1949). The effect of storage on the nutritional qualities of the proteins of wheat, corn and soybeans. J. Nutr., 39: 463-484.
. OKE, O.L. (1965). Chemical studies on some Nigerian cereals. Cereal Chem., 42:299-302.
. OLATUNJI, O., EDWARDS, C. and KOLEOSO, O.A. (1980). Processing of maize and sorghum in Nigeria for human consumption. Int. J. Food. Sci. Technol., 15: 85-92.
. PERTEN, H. (1976). Specific characteristics of millet and sorghum milling. In: D. A. V. Dendy (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Sorghum and Millets for Human Food. (pp. 47–51). London: Tropical Products Institute.
. SURE, B. (1948). Relative Supplementary Values of Dried Food Yeasts, Soybean Flour, Peanut Meal, Dried Non-Fat Milk Solids, and Dried Buttermilk to the Proteins in Milled White Corn Meal and Milled Enriched Wheat Flour. J. Nutr., 36: 65-73.