Plant and soil carbon stock and carbon sequestration potential in four major bamboo species of North India
With climate change being unequivocal, reducing CO2 in our atmosphere has become a primary goal of international efforts. Carbon sequestration is the process characteristic of the species employed for plantation but depends on the continuous management of the plantation also. Assessment of carbon stocks in vegetation and soil is a basic step in evaluating the carbon sequestration potential of an ecosystem. The present study was conducted to quantify the total carbon stock and carbon sequestration potential in four bamboo plantation systems (Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa vulgaris, Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa nutans) in the Terai belt of Uttarakhand, India for two years. The major parameters of the study involved physicochemical characteristics of the soil, structural and functional attributes of microbes, and carbon stocks and carbon sequestration potential in vegetation and soil. Destructive approach was used for biomass estimation. At the end of the study, soil organic carbon stocks in the plantations Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa vulgaris, Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa nutans were 106.56 t ha-1, 85.06 t ha-1, 65.40 t ha-1, and 57.28 t ha-1 respectively. With this, the highest carbon sequestration potential was observed in Dendrocalamus strictus plantation soil. The observed average soil respiration (1426.45mg CO2 m-2 hr-1) and microbial biomass carbon (0.212%) were also highest in D. strictus among all species. Carbon stock was found more in biomass than in soil in all bamboo species. Thus, the present study clearly demonstrates that besides being an economic strength bamboo plant have shown encouraging results in the field of carbon sequestration potential also and it can be a better climate change mitigation option because of several environmental benefits.
. Benbi, D.K. and Nieder, R. (2004). Handbook of processes and modeling in the soil-plant system. The Haworth Press Inc, New York. ISBN 81-7649-833-5. pp-762.
. Black, C.A. (1965). Methods of soil analysis. Academic Press Inc., New York. 367 pp.
. Brady, N.C. (1990). “The Nature and properties of soils”. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. 621 pp.
. Choudhary, M.L. (2008). One Year of National Bamboo Mission in the states of NE Region, West Bengal, Orissa, Jharkhand & Bihar 2007 – 2008. Cane & Bamboo Technology Centre Guwahati, Assam, India.
. Deka, H.K., Mishra, R.R. (1982). Decomposition of bamboo (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees.) leaflitter in relation to age of jhum fallows in Northeast India. Plant and Soil, 68(2):151-159.
. Dilly, O., Blume, H.P., Sehy, U., Jimenez, M., Munch, J.C. (2003). Variation of stabilized, microbial and biologically active carbon and nitrogen in soil under contrasting land use and agricultural management practices. Chemosphere, 52: 557-569.
. Doran, J.W., Parkin, T.B. (1994). Defining and assessing soil quality. In: Doran, J.W., Coleman, D.C., Bezdicek, D.F., Stewart, B.A. (Eds.), Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1994, pp. 3–35.
. Gallardo, A. and Merino, J. (1993). Leaf decomposition in two Mediterranean ecosystems of Southwest Spain: influence of substrate quality. Ecology, 74:152-161.
. Geetha, T. and Balagopalan, M. (2005). Soils as influenced by teak and eucalyptus plantations - A case study in Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. J. of Soils and Crops, 15(2): 264-268.
. Ghavami, K. (2005). Bamboo as reinforcement in structural concrete elements. Cement and Concrete Composites, 27: 637-649.
. Hosur, G.C. and Dasog, G.S. (1995). Effect of tree species on soil properties. J. Indian Soc. Soil. Sci. 43: 256-259.
. INBAR (2006). In partnership for a better world – strategy to the year 2015. Beijing, China: INBAR; p. 23.
. IPCC (2007). Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II: to the Fourth Assessment.
. Janssens, I.A., Lankreijer, H., Matteucci, G., Kowalski, A.S., Buchmann, N., Epron, D., Pilegaard, K., Kutsch, W., Longdoz, B., Grunwald, T. et al., (2001). Productivity overshadows temperature in determining soil and ecosystem respiration across European forests. Global Change Biology, 7(3): 269-278.
. Jiang-shan, Z., Jian-fen, G., Guang-shui, C. and Wei, Q. (2005). Soil microbial biomass and its controls. Journal of Forestry Research, 16 (4): 327-330.
. de M. Sá, J.C., Cerri, C.C., Dick, W.A., Lal, R., Filho, S.P.V., Piccolo, M.C., and Feigl, B.E. (2001). Organic matter dynamics and carbon sequestration rates for a tillage chronosequence in a Brazilian Oxisol. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 65(5): 1486-1499.
. Killham, K. (1994). Soil Ecology [M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
. Klose, S., Tabatabai, M.A. (1999). Urease activity of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31:205-211.
. Kumar, A. and Kumari, S. (2010). Sustainable development and bamboo cultivation for combating climate change in the Indian Context –a review. The Bioscan, 1:135 -140.
. Lal, R. (2009). Carbon sequestration. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 363(1492): 815–830.
. Landsberg, J.J., Linder, S. and McMurtrie, R.E. (1995). Effects of global change on managed forests-A strategic plan for research on managing forest ecosystems in a globally changing environment. GCTE report no. 4. IUFRO occasional paper no.1. GCTE and IUFRO. p. 1–17.
. Lugo, A.E. and Brown, S. (1993). Management of tropical soils as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon. Plant and Soil, 149: 27-41.
. Myrold, D.D. (1987). Relationship between microbial biomass nitrogen and a nitrogen availability index. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51(4): 1047-1049.
. Naithani, H.B. (1993). Contribution to the taxonomic studies of Indian Bamboos. Ph.D. Thesis Vol. I. H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal.
. Nath, A.J. and Das, A.K. (2007). Carbon pool and carbon sequestration potential of village bamboos in the Agroforestry system of Northeast India. In International Tropical Ecology Congress, Abstract. HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand and International Society for Tropical Ecology, Varanasi, 2–5 December 2007, p. 159.
. Nath, A.J. and Das, A.K. (2011). Carbon storage and sequestration in bamboo-based small holder home gardens of Barak Valley, Assam. Current Science, 100(2):229-233.
. Nath, A.J., Das, G. and Das, A.K. (2008). Above ground biomass, production and carbon sequestration in farmer managed village bamboo grove in Assam, northeast India. J. Am. Bamboo Soc., 21:32–40.
. Nath, A.J., Das, G. and Das, A.K. (2009). Above ground, standing biomass and carbon storage in village bamboos in North East India. Biomass and Bioenergy, 33:1188-1196.
. NMBA (2004). The bamboo book. National mission on bamboo applications. New Delhi. Department of Science and Technology. p. 5–19.
. Oelbermann, M., Voroney, R.P. and Gordon, A.M. (2004). Carbon sequestration in tropical and temperate Agroforestry system: A review with examples from Costa Rica and southern Canada. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 104: 359-377.
. Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S. and Dean, L.A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington. D.C. Circular. 939.
. Patil, V.D., Sarnikar, P.N., Adsul, P.B. and Thengal, P.D. (2004). Profile studies, organic matter build-up and nutritional status of soil under bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) based agroforestry system. J. of Soils and Crops, 14(1): 31-35.
. PIA (Philippine Information Agency, 2008). Bamboo as carbon sequester and income booster. Non Wood News. p-17.
. Puri, S., Swamy, S.L. and Jaiswal, A.K. (2002). Evaluation of Populus deltoides clones under nursery, field agrisilviculture system in subhumid tropics of central India. New Forests, 23: 45-61.
. Ram, N., Singh, L., Kumar, P. (2010). Bamboo plantation diversity and its economic role in North Bihar, India. Nature and Science, 8(11):111-115.
. Ranjan, N.P. (2001). Rethinking Bamboo in the 21st Century. Development of the Bamboo and Rattan Sector in Tropical China. China Forestry Publishing House.
. Ravindranath, N.H., Joshi, N.V., Sukumar, R., Saxena, A. (2006). Impact of climate change on forests in India. Current Science, 90(3):354–61.
. Reichstein, M., Rey, A., Freibauer, A., Tenhunen, J., Valentini, R., Banza, J., Casals, P., Cheng, Y., Grunzwieg, J.M., Irvine, J. et al., (2003). Modeling temporal and large-scale spatial variability of soil respiration from soil water availability, temperature and vegetation productivity indices. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17(4): 1104.
. Scurlock, J.M.O., Dayton, D.C. and Hames, B. (2000). Bamboo: an overlooked biomass resource? Biomass and Bioenergy, 19: 229- 244.
. Shanmughavel, P., Peddappaiah, R.S. and Muthukumar, T. (2001). Biomass production in an age series of Bambusa bambos plantations. Biomass and Bioenergy, 20: 113-117.
. Shrestha, B.M. and Singh, B.R. (2008). Soil and vegetation carbon pools in a mountainous watershed of Nepal. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 81:179–191.
. Singh, A.N. and Singh, J.S. (1999). Biomass, net primary production and impact of bamboo plantation on soil redevelopment in a dry tropical region. For. Ecol. Manage., 119: 195-207.
. Singh, J. (1984). Effect of temperature, rainfall and soil moisture on soil moisture on soil respiration and litter decomposition in a subtropical humid forest ecosystem. Acta Bot. Indica., 12 (2):167-173.
. Singh, K., Chauhan, H.S., Rajput, D.K. and Singh, D.V. (1981). Report of a 60 month study on litter production, changes in soil chemical properties and productivity under poplar (P. deltoides) and Eucalyptus (E. hybrid) interplanted with aromatic grasses. Agroforestry Systems, 9:37-45.
. Singh, L. and Singh, J.S. (1991). Species structure, dry matter dynamics and carbon flux of a dry tropical forest in India. Ann. Bot., 68: 263–273.
. Singh, P., Dubey, P. and Jha, K.K. (2006). Biomass production and carbon storage at harvest age in superior Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. plantation in dry deciduous forest region of India. Indian J. of Forestry, 29(4): 353-360.
. Singh, R. and Lal, M. (2000). Sustainable forestry in India for carbon mitigation. Current Science, 78: 563-567.
. Subbiah, B.V. and Asija, G.L. (1956). A rapid procedure for the determination of available nitrogen in soils. Current Science, 25: 259-260.
. Swamy, S.L., Mishra, A. and Puri, S. (2003). Biomass production and root distribution of Gmelina arborea under an agrisilviculture system in subhumid tropics of central India. New Forests, 26:167-186.
. Swamy, S.L. and Puri, S. (2005). Biomass production and C-sequestration of Gmelina arborea in plantation and Agroforestry system in India. Agroforestry Systems, 64:181-195.
. Tripathi, S.K. and Singh, K.P. (1996). Culm recruitment, dry matter dynamics and carbon flux in recently harvested and mature bamboo savannas in the Indian dry tropics. Ecological Research, 11(2):149-164.
. Turco, R.F., Kennedy, A.C. & Jawson, M.D. (1994). Microbial indicators of soil quality. In: Doran, J.W., Coleman, D.C., Bezdicek, D.F. & Stewart, B.A., eds. Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment. Madison, Soil Science Society of America, p.73-90. (SSSA Special Publication, 35).
. Upadhyaya, K., Arunachalam, A. and Arunachalam, K. (2004). Effect of bamboo foliage on soil respiration, microbial biomass and N mineralization. J. of Bamboo and Rattan, 3(2): 169-183.
. Vance, E.D., Brookes, P.C., Jenkinson, D.S. (1987). An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biol. Biochem., 19:703-707.
. Venkatesh, M.S., Bhatt, B.P., Kumar, K., Majumdar, B., Singh, K. (2005). Soil properties influenced by some important edible bamboo species in the North Eastern Himalayan region. India. J. of Bamboo and Rattan, 4(3): 221-230.
. Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci., 37:29–38.
. Wang, F.E., Chen, Y.X., Tian, G.M., Kumar, S., He, Y.F., Fu, Q.L., Lin, Q. (2004). Microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil profiles of different vegetation covers established for soil rehabilitation in a red soil region of southeastern China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 68: 181-189.
. Witkamp, M. and Van der Drift, J. (1961). Breakdown of forest litter in relation to environmental factors. Plant and Soil, 15(4): 295-311.
. Wu, J., Joergensen, R.G., Pommerening, B., Chaussod, R., Brookes, P.C. (1990). Measurement of soil microbial biomass C by fumigation extraction: an automated procedure. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 22:1167-1169.
. Xue, J. Yi, Tang, J.W., Sha, L., Meng, Y., Huang, J.G., Guo, X.M., Dao, J.H., Duan, W.G. and Duan, W.Y. (2002). Variation of Soil Nutrient Dynamics under Dendrocalamus membranaceus Forest in Xishuangbanna. J. of Northeast Forestry University, 30(5): 27-31.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.