Application of Water Quality Index for Assessment Water Quality in Some Bottled Water Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords:Bottled Water, Erbil, WQI, Physicochemical parameters
Water quality index was applied to assessment water quality of six different types of bottled water that's available in Erbil city (Life, Shireen, Kani, Al-Hayat, Rawan, and Masafi) for drinking purposes, depending on the physicochemical parameters of water (Turbidity, EC, TDS, pH, Alkalinity, Hardness, Ca+2, Mg+2, and No3-2). The water quality index showed that the Life, Rawan, and Masafi are excellent; also Shireen, Kani, and Al-Hayat are good for drinking purposes depending on the World Health Organization (WHO) standards. The results indicate the bottled water quality generally changed from years 2009 to 2012, some of the bottles have changed to the better and improved their quality, and another's changed to the worse side and declined their quality. WQI is also suggested as a very helpful tool that enables the public and decision makers to evaluate water quality of different bottled waters.
Abd El-Salam, M.M., El-Ghitany, E.M. & Kassem, M.M. (2008). Quality of bottled water brands in egypt part I: physico-chemical analyses. J. Egypt. Public Health Assoc., 83(5-6): 369–388.
Oyelude, E.O. & Ahenkorah, S. (2012). Quality of Sachet Water and Bottled Water in Bolgatanga Municipality of Ghana. Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(9): 1094-1098.
Taiwo, A.M., Gbadebo, A.M. & Awomeso, J.A. (2010). Potability Assessment of Selected Brands of Bottled Water in Abeokuta, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 14(3): 47–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v14i3.61464.
Fulazzaky, M.A. & Hadimuljono, M.B. (2010). Evaluation of the suitability of Citarum river water for different uses. The 61st International Executive Council Meeting and 6th Asian Regional Conference. Yogyakarta (Indonesia): October 10-16, pp. 1-14.
Akoteyon, I.S., Omotayo, A.O., Soladoye, O. & Olaoye, H.O. (2011). Determination of water quality index and suitability of urban river for municipal water supply in Lagos-Nigeria. Eur. J. Sci. Res., 54(2): 263-271.
Toma, J.J., Hanna, N.S. & Mohammad, B.A. (2013). Effect of Storage Condition on Some Bottled Water Quality in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. International Journal of Software and Web Sciences, 3(1): 33-43.
Toma, J.J. (2009). Studying of Water quality of various Trading Marks of Potable bottled waters in Erbil City, Iraq. Zanco, Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 22(2): 1-13.
APHA (1989). Standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. 17th edn, American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF), Washington, D.C.
Ramakrishnaiah, C.R., Sadashivaiah, C. & Ranganna, G. (2009). Assessment of Water Quality Index for the Groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India. E-J. Chem., 6(2): 523-530. https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/757424.
Yisa, J. & Jimoh, T. (2010). Analytical Studies on Water Quality Index of River Landzu. Am. J. Appl. Sci., 7(4): 453–458. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2010.453.458.
Chauhan, A. & Singh, S. (2010). Evaluation of Ganga water for drinking purpose by water quality index at Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. Report and opinion, 2(9): 53-61.
Shivaharanappa, Srinivas, P. & Huggi M.S. (2011). Assessment of ground water quality characteristics and Water Quality Index (WQI) of Bidar city and its industrial area, Karnataka State, India. Int. J. Environ. Sci., 2(2): 965-976.
WHO (2004). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. 3rd edition: Volume 1 - Recommendation, World Health Organization, Geneva.
Welch, P.S. (1952). Limnology. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. pp. 538.
Alobaidy, A.H.M.J., Abid, H.S. & Maulood, B.K. (2010). Application of Water Quality Index for Assessment of Dokan Lake Ecosystem, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. J. Water Resour. Prot., 2(9): 792–798. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2010.29093.
Hem, J.D. (1985). Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water. 3rd Edition. U.S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 2254, 263 pp.
Hassan, I.O. (1998). Urban hydrology of Erbil City Region. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Baghdad, Iraq.
Malviya, N., Deo, S. & Inam, F. (2011). Determination of water quality index to assess water quality for drinking and agricultural purposes. International Journal of Basic and Applied Chemical Sciences, 1(1): 79-88.
Parmar, K. & Parmar, V. (2010). Evaluation of water quality index for drinking purposes of river Subernarekha in Singhbhum District. Int. J. Environ. Sci., 1: 77–81.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2013 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.