Control of Ralstonia solanacearum Infection in Tomato, Brinjal and Capsicum by antibiotic sensitivity test
Keywords:Bacterial wilt, Antibiotics, Ralstonia solanacearum, antibacterial
Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the important dreaded soil’s borne bacterial phytopathogen which causes enormous losses in the crop plants in tropical, subtropical and temperate region of the world. In India, the disease is highly prevalent and active throughout the year where the soil is acidic in the Eastern Plateau and Hill Region. Once the disease is established in the field, it cannot be controlled by chemical means. Keeping these in view, screening of potential antibiotics for the management of R. solanacearum was done.
In the present study, three strains of R. solanacearum were isolated from Brinjal, Tomato and Capsicum. Against these three strains of R. solanacearum, four antibiotics were screened through food poison techniques viz. Kasugamycin, Streptomycin, Ceftriaxone and Gentamicin. The different strains of R. solanacearum and antibiotic sensitivity showed varied response. Among the screened antibiotics, Gentamicin showed strong antibacterial efficacy which inhibited 100% Colony-forming Unit (cfu) at very low concentration (1 ppm) followed by Ceftriaxone which inhibited >50% cfu at 1 ppm against all three strains. However, Streptomycin also showed antibacterial efficacy and inhibited >50% cfu at 3 ppm, but Kasugamycin was found less antibacterial as compared to other tested antibiotics and inhibited >50% cfu at 4 ppm.
Smith, E.F. (1896). A bacterial disease of tomato, pepper, eggplant and Irish potato (Bacillus solanacearum nov. sp.). United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology Bulletin, 12: 1–28.
Anuratha, C.S. & Gnanamanickam, S.S. (1990). Biological control of bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum in India with antagonistic bacteria. Plant Soil, 124(1): 109–116. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00010938.
Yabuuchi, E., Kosako, Y., Yano, I., Hotta, H. & Nishiuchi, Y. (1995). Transfer of two Burkholderia and an Alcaligenes species to Ralstonia gen. Nov.: Proposal of Ralstonia pickettii (Ralston, Palleroni and Doudoroff 1973) comb. Nov., Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith 1896) comb. Nov. and Ralstonia eutropha (Davis 1969) comb. Nov. Microbiol. Immunol., 39(11): 897–904. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.1995.tb03275.x.
Martin, C. & French, E.R. (1985). Bacterial wilt of potatoes caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Technical Information Bulletin 13, International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru.
French, E.R. (1994). Strategies for integrated control of bacterial wilt of potatoes. In: Hayward, A.C. & Hartman, G.L. (eds), Bacterial wilt. The disease and its causative agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum. CAB International, UK, pp. 98-113.
Denny, P.T. & Hayward, A.C. (2001). Gram negative bacteria, Ralstonia. In: N.W. Schaad, J.B. Jones & W. Chun (Eds.), Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, St. Paul: American Phytopathology Society Press. pp. 151–174.
Buddenhagen, I.W., Sequeira, L. & Kelman, A. (1962). Designation of races in Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology, 52: 726.
Hayward, A.C. (1964). Characteristics of Pseudomonas solanacearum. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 27(2): 265–277. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1964.tb04912.x.
Hayward, A.C. & Hartman, G.L. (1994). Bacterial wilt: the disease and its causative agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum. CAB International, Wallingford.
Agrios, G.N. (2008). Plant Pathology. 5th edition, Elsevier Academic Press, pp. 647-649.
Kelman, A. (1954). The relationship of pathogenicity in Pseudomonas solanacearum to colony appearance on a tetrazolium medium. Phytopathology, 44: 693–695.
Elphinstone, J.G. (2005). The current bacterial wilt situation: A global overview. In: Allen, C., Prior, P. & Hayward, A.C. (Eds.), Bacterial Wilt Disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota USA. pp. 9-28.
Pradhanang, P.M., Ji, P., Momol, M.T., Olson, S.M., Mayfield, J.L. & Jones, J.B. (2005). Application of Acibenzolar-S-Methyl Enhances Host Resistance in Tomato against Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Dis., 89(9): 989-993. https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-89-0989.
Champoiseau, P.G., Jones, J.B. & Allen, C. (2009). Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 causes tropical losses and temperate anxieties. Plant Health Prog., https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2009-0313-01-RV.
Sangoyomi, T.E., Owoseni, A.A., Adebayo, O.S. & Omilani, O.A. (2011). Evaluation of some botanicals against bacterial wilt of tomatoes. Int. Res. J. Microbiol., 2(9): 365-369.
Champoiseau, P.G., Jones, J.B., Momol, T.M., Pingsheng, J., Allen, C., Norman, D.J., Harmon, C., Miller, S.A., Schubert, T., Bell, D., Floyd, J.P., Kaplan, D., Bulluck, R., Smith, K. & Caldwell, K. (2010). Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 biovar 2 causing brown rot of potato, bacterial wilt of tomato and southern wilt of geranium [Online]. American Phytopathological Society. Madison, WI, USA. Available at http://plantpath.ifas.ufl.edu/rsol/NRI_Project/Projectsummary.html.
Yoshizawa, S., Fourmy, D. & Puglisi, J.D. (1998). Structural origins of gentamicin antibiotic action. EMBO J., 17(22): 6437–6448. https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/17.22.6437.
Allen, C., Kelman, A. & French, E.R. (2001). Brown rot of potatoes. In: Stevenson, W.R., Loria, R., Franc, G.D. & Weingartner, D.P. (ed), Compendium of potato diseases, 2nd ed., APS Publishing, St. Paul, MN. pp. 11–13.
Schuwirth, B.S., Day, J.M., Hau, C.W., Janssen, G.R., Dahlberg, A.E., Cate, J.H. & Vila-Sanjurjo, A. (2006). Structural analysis of kasugamycin inhibition of translation. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 13(10): 879–886. https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb1150.
Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M. & Woolverton, C.J. (2008). Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology. 7th Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2014 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.