A review of vehicular pollution in urban India and its effects on human health
Keywords:Air pollution, Vehicular emission, Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, Cardiovascular mortality
The rapid development in urban India has resulted in a tremendous increase in the number of motor vehicles. In some cities, this has doubled in the last decade. Rapid urbanization and growth of motor vehicles impose a serious effect on human life and the environment in recent years. Motor vehicles are a significant source of urban air pollution and are increasingly important contributors of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Transport sector contributes a major sector, contributing 90% of total emissions. Air pollution is a serious environmental health threat to humans. Adverse effects range from nausea, difficulty in breathing and skin irritations, birth defects, immunosuppression and cancer. All these situations indicate that air pollution becoming a major problem in Indian context and there is an essential need to build up healthy environment and increase the level of research around the world. The present study is a review of an increase in vehicular pollution in India and its effect on human due to increasing road transport.
. Air pollution in megacities of world, UNEP and WHO Publication (1992). Blackwell Publications. Oxford, (UK).
. Air Quality Guidelines (2005). World Health Organization.
. Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, Govt. of India (2000). Air quality status and trends in India. National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Series, NAAQMS/14/1999-2000.
. Census of India, Retrieved (2011). Provisional Population Totals. Government of India.
. Central Pollution Control Board, (CPCB) (2010). Status of the vehicular pollution control program in India program objective series PROBES/136/2010.
. Stieb, D.M., Chen, L., Eshoul, M., Judek, S. (2012). Ambient air pollution, birth weight and preterm birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Research, 117: 100–111.
. Liu, H.Y., Bartonova, A., Schindler, M., Sharma, M., Behera, S.N., Katiyar, K., Dikshit, O. (2013). Respiratory Disease in Relation to Outdoor Air Pollution in Kanpur, India. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 68(4): 204-217.
. Mage, D., Ozolins, G., Peterson, P., Webster, A., Orthofer, R., Vandeweerd, V., Gwynne, M. (1996). Urban air pollution in megacities of the world. Atmospheric Environment, 30: 681-686.
. Tahir, M., Hussain, T. and Ali, M. (2012). Transport sector and air quality in metro cities: A case study of Delhi India. International Journal of Geology, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2(3): 25-35.
. Mayer, H. (1999). Air pollution in cities. Atmospheric Environment, 33: 4029-4037.
. Miyake, Y., Tanaka, K., Fujiwara, H., Mitani, Y., Ikemi, H., Sasaki, S., Ohya, Y., Hirota, Y. (2010). Residential proximity to main roads during pregnancy and the risk of allergic disorders in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol., 21: 22–28.
. MoRTH, (2012). Road Transport Year Book India.
. Mukhopadhyay, K., & Forssell, O. (2005). An empirical investigation of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion and its impact on health in India during 1973-1974 to 1996-1997. Ecological Economics, 55: 235-250.
. Paramesh, H. (2003). Report on State of Environment Action Plan, Karnataka, World Bank Project.
. Central Pollution Control Board (2003). Auto Emissions. Parivesh Newsletter, CPCB, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) (2002). Benzene in air and its effects on human health. Parivesh Newsletter, CPCB, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
. Perera, F.P., Tang, D., Wang, S., Vishnevetsky, J., Zhang, B., Diaz, D., Camann, D., Rauh, V. (2012). Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and child behavior at age 6–7 years. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(6): 921-926.
. Rajarathnam, U., Sehgal, M., Nairy, S., Patnayak, R.C., Chhabra, S.K., Kilnani, Ragavan, K.V., HEI Health Review Committee (2011). Part 2. Time-series study on air pollution and mortality in Delhi. Res. Rep. Health Eff. Inst., 157: 47-74.
. Report of the subgroup on passenger and freight traffic assessment and adequacy of fleet and data collection and use of IT in transport sector in the twelfth five year plan (2012-17) September, (2011). Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India.
. Report on vehicular technology in India: emissions norms (2011). Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) India.
. Rizwan, S.A., Nongkynrih, B. and Gupta, S.K. (2013). Air pollution in Delhi: Its magnitude and effects on health. Indian J. Community Med., 38(1): 4–8.
. Sharma, R.D., Jain, S.A. and Singh, K. (2011). Growth of motor vehicles in India-Impact of demographic and economic development. J. Eco. Soc. Study, 1(2): 137-153.
. Shrivastav, R.K., Saxena, N., and Gautam, G. (2013). Air pollution due to road transportation in India: A review on assessment and reduction strategies. J. Environmental Research and Development, 8(1):69-77.
. Siddique, S., Ray, M.R. and Lahiri, T. (2011). Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children: a study in the capital city of India. Air Qual. Atmos. Health, 4: 95–102.
. Slow Murder. Center for Science and Environment, New Delhi, India (1996).
. Sood, P.R., (2012). Air pollution through vehicular emission in urban India and preventive measure. International Conference on Environment, Energy and Biotechnology, IPCBEE vol. 33 IACSIT Press, Singapore, 45-49.
. Technical Report (1998). Evaluation of emission characteristics and compliance of emission standards of use petrol driven vehicles and critical appraisal of the pollution checking system in Delhi. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, India.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.