Sensory Evaluation and Feasibility Report of Plantain Sandwich for Nigerian Market

  • Olu Malomo College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota P.M.B. 1015, OTA, Ogun State, Nigeria.
  • E. O. Uche College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota P.M.B. 1015, OTA, Ogun State, Nigeria.
  • E. A. Alamu College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota P.M.B. 1015, OTA, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Keywords: Plantain, Peanut Butter, Roasting, Enrichment, Sensory Evaluation, Feasibility Study, Break-even Point


Protein-energy malnutrition is a common nutritional disorder in developing countries and constitutes a major public health problem in young children and elderly people. This project is aimed at evaluating the acceptability of plantain-peanut sandwich and roasted at different temperatures. A plantain-peanut sandwich consists of minced protein stuffed into a carbohydrate source made into a roll as a food product. The plantain was roasted at two different temperatures than later enriched with 5%, 10% and 15% peanut butter. The crude protein and crude fibre contents of the plantain samples roasted at 200oC and 240oC showed no significant difference (P˃0.05) while the ash, fat and carbohydrate contents showed that there was a significant difference (P˂0.05). The results of the proximate composition showed that there was a significant difference (P˂0.05) at the two different roasting temperatures of 200oC and 240oC when enriched at 5%, 10% and 15% levels with peanut butter. This pattern of significant increase was also observed with the amino acid profiles at the two different roasting temperature levels. The sensory evaluation record shows that the mean scores for the appearance, taste, colour, aroma, mouthfeel and overall acceptability of the enriched roasted samples varied, but the plantain roasted at 240oC enriched with 15% peanut butter had the highest acceptability level. A feasibility study was carried out to investigate the possibility of producing and marketing a plantain-peanut sandwich. The study revealed that a starting point of 60 packs at 4 fingers per pack sold at 600 Naira per day gave an estimated turnover of 9 million Naira per annum. A breakeven point analysis revealed that a price break even point of 19.14% is feasible while a product breakeven of 18.04% of the estimated annual sales of 15,000 packs is also feasible.


Download data is not yet available.


[1]. Abioye, V.F., Ade-Omowaye, B.I.O., Babarinde, G.O. and Adesigbin, M.K. (2011). Chemical, Physicochemical and sensory properties of soy-plantain flour. African Journal of Food Science, 5(4): 176 – 180.
[2]. Adelakun, O.E., Adejuyitan, J.A., Olajide, J.O. & Alabi, B.K. (2005). Effect of Soybean Substitution on some Physical, Compositional and Sensory Properties of Kokoro (a local maize snack). European Food Research and Technology, 220: 79- 82.
[3]. Ahmed, E.M. and C.T., Young (1982). Composition, quality, and flavor of peanuts. In: Pattee, H.E. and C.T. Young (eds). Peanut Science and Technology. Yoakum, Texas: Am. Peanut Res. Edu. Soc., Yoakum, Texas, 655-688.
[4]. Akubor, P.I., Ojih, S.A. (2009). Effect of ripening of plantain fruit on the chemical and sensory qualities of fayaba-a traditional plantain: maize snack Niger. J. Nutr. Sci., 30 (2):116-122.
[5]. Akubor, P.I. (2003). Functional properties and performance of cowpea/ plantain/ wheat flour blends in biscuit. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 58:1-8.
[6]. AOAC (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th ed; AOAC Arlington, Virginia.
[7]. Asibuo, J.Y., Akromah, R., Safo-Kantanka, O., Adu-Dapaah, H.K., Ohemeng-Dapaah, S. & Agyeman, A. (2008). Chemical composition of groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L) landraces. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(13): 2203-2208.
[8]. Asibuo, J.Y., Akromah, R., Adu-Dapaah, H.K. and Safo-Kantanka, O. (2008). Evaluation of nutritional quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from Ghana. AJFAND, 8(2): 133-150.
[9]. Asiedu, J.J. (1992). Processing Tropical crops a technological Approach. The Macmillan Press Publication Ltd. Second Edition, pp: 43-84, 124-145,167-788.
[10]. Bansal, U.K., Satija, D.R. and Ahuja, K.L. (1993). Oil Composition of diverse groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes in relation to different environments. J. Sci. Food Agric., 63:17-19.
[11]. Davies, G. (1993). Production domestique de la bière de banane dans la région de Mpigi, Ouganda. Infomusa, 2(1): 12-15.
[12]. Oerise, N.L., Lau, H.A., Ritchey, S.J. and Murphy, E.W. (1974). Yield, proximate composition and mineral elemental content of three cultivars of raw and roasted peanuts. J. Food Sci., 39: 264-266.
[13]. Food Agriculture Organisation (FAO) 1990. Annuaire de la production mondiate (Annual Book of the World Production). Roma, Italy.
[14]. FAO (1999). Banana: Plantain Post-harvest Operations.
[15]. FAO (2004). Food and Agriculture Organisation, Statistics Series No. 95. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, 2004.
[16]. FAO (2005). http//
[17]. FAO (2005). http//
[18]. FAO (2004). http//
[19]. FAO (1990). FAO Corporate Document Repository.
[20]. Frankel, E.N. (2005). Lipid Oxidation, 2nd ed., Oily Press Lipid Library Series. Bridgwater, England, pp.1-470.
[21]. Grosso, N.R., Nepote, V., Giannuzzo, N., Guzman, C.A. (2002). Composicion porcentual de acidos grasos y de esteroles de algunos genotipos de especies silvestres de mani. Anales- Asociacion Quimica Argentina (Journal of the Argentine Chemical Society) 90 (4/6): 45-54.
[22]. Grosso, N.R., Resurreccion, A.V.A. (2002). Predicting consumer acceptance ratings of cracker-coated and roasted peanuts from descriptive analysis and hexanal measurements. J. Food Sci., 67: 1530-1537.
[23]. Iwe, M.O. (2002). Handbook of Sensory Methods and Analysis. Projoint Communications Services Ltd., Enugu, Nigeria.
[24]. Jennette, H. (2003). The beneficial role of peanuts in the diet - Part 2. Nutr. Food Sci., 33: 56-64.
[25]. John, P. and Marchal, J. (1995). Ripening and biochemistry of the fruit. In: Gowen, S.R. (ed.). Bananas and Plantains. World Crop Series. Springer, Dordrecht.
[26]. Malomo, Olu, Ogunmoyela O.A.B., Adekoyeni, O.O., Jimoh, O., Oluwajoba, S.O, Sobanwa, M.O. (2012). Rheological and Functional Properties of Soy-Poundo Yam Flour. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 2(6): 101-107.
[27]. Marriott, J., Lancaster, P.A. (1983). Bananas and Plantains. In: Handbook of Tropical Foods. Harvey Jr. TC (Ed), Marcel Dekker, Inc. pp. 85-142.
[28]. Maziya-Dixon, B., Akinyele, I.O., Oguntona, E.B., Nokoe, S., Sanusi, R.A. and Harris, E. Nigeria Food Consumption and Survey, 2001-2003, summary. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, 2004.
[29]. Morelle, S. (1997). Production et utilisation de farine de plantains et bananes à cuire. pp. 22. Rapport de stage effectué au CRBP de Njombé au Cameroun du 1er Juillet au 29 Août 1997.
[30]. Morteza Mashayekh, Mohammad Reza Mahmoodi and Mohammad Hasan Entezari (2008). Effect of fortification of defatted soy flour on sensory and rheological properties of wheat bread. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43:1693-1698.
[31]. Nepote, V., Mestrallet, M.G., Accietto, R.H., Galizzi, M., Grosso, N.R. (2006a). Chemical and sensory stability of roasted high-oleic peanuts from Argentina. J. Sci. Food Agric., 86: 944-952.
[32]. Nepote, V., Mestrallet, M.G., Grosso, N.R. (2006b). Oxidative stability in fried-salted peanuts elaborated with high-oleic and regular peanut from Argentina. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 41: 900-909.
[33]. Nepote, V., Mestrallet, M.G., Olmedo, R.H., Ryan, L.C., Conci, S., Grosso, N.R. (2008). Chemical Composition and Sensory Analysis of Roasted Peanuts Coated with Prickly Pear and Algarrobo Pod Syrups. Grasas y Aceites, 59: 174-181.
[34]. Ogazi, P.O. (1996). Plantain: production, processing and utilization. Paman and Associates Ltd., Imo State, Nigeria, pp: 305.
[35]. Pancholy, S.K., Deshpande, A.S. and Krall, S. (1978). Amino acids, oil and protein content of some selected peanuts cultivars. Proc. Am. Peanut Res. Educ. Soc., 10:30-37.
[36]. Robinson, J.C. (1996). Bananas and Plantains. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp: 238.
[37]. Savage, G.P., Keenan, J.I. (1994). The composition and nutritive value of Groundnut kernels. In: Smart, J. (Ed.). The Groundnut Crop: Scientific Basis for Improvement, Chapman and Hall, London, 173-213.
[38]. Sommer, A. (1989). New imperatives for an old vitamin (A). J. Nutr., 119: 96-100.
[39]. Stover, R.H. and N.W. Simmonds (1987). Bananas. 3rd ed. Wiley. New York, USA: 97-103.
[40]. Swennen, R. (1990). Plantain Cultivation under West African Conditions - A Reference Manual. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria.
[41]. Sanghvi, T. and Murray, J. (1997). Improving child health through nutrition: the nutrition minimum package. Arlington, Va, BASICS project, for USAID USA Pp 3-10.
[42]. Woodroof, J.G. (1983). Peanuts: Production Processing, Products. 3rd edition. AVI publishing company, Inc., Westport Connecticut.
[43]. Weiss, E.A. (1983). “Oilseed Crops” First edition, pp: 100-117.
[44]. Weiss, T.J. (1983). Physical and Chemical Properties of Fats and Oils and Their Uses. 2nd Edn., AVI Publishers, Westport, USA., pp: 25-31, 44-84.
How to Cite
Malomo, O., Uche, E., & Alamu, E. (2015). Sensory Evaluation and Feasibility Report of Plantain Sandwich for Nigerian Market. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology, 6(1), 18-32. Retrieved from