Is Toxoplasma gondii IgG seropositivity a predisposing factor for infertility?
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately one-third of the world population is infected with this parasite. Several studies have examined the causes of human infertility in the Middle East. A high proportion of secondary infertility and a great contribution of the female factor was the major finding in most of these studies. In this study, we aim to explore the relationship between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and female infertile patients. Serum samples from 83 female patients visiting the infertility clinic and 57 normal prim gravid females attending the ANC clinic were collected during the year 2014. Serum samples were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma IgG by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) technology. Patients visiting the infertility clinic, aged from 18-40 years (x=29.7) while normal prim gravid females attending the ANC clinic aged from 18-38 (x=26.1). Of the 83 samples collected from patients visiting the infertility clinic, 15 samples were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG while only 2 samples (out of 57) collected from normal prim gravid females attending the ANC clinic were positive. There was a statistically significant correlation between positive anti-Toxoplasma IgG and infertility (p<0.01). We suggest considering the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in serum of young females as an indicator for possible future infertility.
. Tenter, A.M., Heckeroth, A.R., Weiss, L.M. (2000). Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. International Journal for Parasitology, 30 (12-13): 1217-1258.
. Pappas, G., Roussos, N. & Falagas, M.E. (2009). Toxoplasmosis snapshots: Global status of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and implications for pregnancy and congenital toxoplasmosis. International Journal for Parasitology, 39(12): 1385-1394.
. Tonkal, A.M. (2008). PCR versus ELISA in diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 38(3): 707-714.
. Al-Mohammad, H.I., Amin, T.T., Balaha, M.H., Al-Moghannum, M.S. (2010). Toxoplasmosis among the pregnant women attending a Saudi maternity hospital: seroprevalence and possible risk factors. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 104(6): 493-504.
. Al-Qurashi, A.R., Ghandour, A.M., Obied, O.E., Al-Mulhim, A. and Makki, S.M. (2001). Seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the human population in the Eastern Region. Saudi Medical Journal, 22(1): 13-18.
. Bin Dajem, S.M., Almushait, M.A. (2012). Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA by PCR in blood samples collected from pregnant Saudi women from the Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 32(5): 507-512.
. Almogren, A. (2011). Antenatal screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 31(6): 569-572.
. Al-Harthi, S.A., Jamjoom, M.B. & Ghazi, H.O. (2006). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii among pregnant women in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Science, Medicine and Engineering, 18: 217 -227.
. Li, S, Cui, L., Zhao, J., Dai, P., Zong, S., Zuo, W., Chen, C., Jin, H., Gao, H. and Liu, Q. (2011). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Female Sterility Patients in China. Journal of Parasitology, 97: 529-530.
. Noorbakhsh, S., Farhadi, M., Tabatabaei, A., Mohamadi, S. and Jomeh, M. (2008). Infection in childhood sensory hearing loss. Saudi Medical Journal, 29(10): 1470-1474.
. Alvarado-Esquivel, C., Liesenfeld, O., Torres-Castorena, A., Estrada-Martínez, S., Urbina-Alvarez, J.D., Ramos-de la Rocha, M., Márquez-Conde, J.A., Dubey, J.P. (2010). Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in patients with vision and hearing impairments, cancer, HIV, or undergoing hemodialysis in Durango, Mexico. Journal of Parasitology, 96(3): 505-508.
. Dvorakova-Hortova, K., Sidlova, A., Ded, L., Hladovcova, D., Vieweg, M., Weidner, W., Steger, K., Stopka, P., Paradowska-Dogan, A. (2014). Toxoplasma gondii decreases the reproductive fitness in mice. PLoS ONE, 9(6):e96770, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096770.
. Shin, D.W., Cha, D.Y., Hua, Q.J., Cha, G.H. and Lee, Y.H. (2009). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and characteristics of seropositive patients in general hospitals in Daejeon, Korea. Korean Journal of Parasitology, 47: 125-130.
. Elussein, E.A., Magid, Y.M., Omer, M.M. and Adam, I. (2008). Clinical patterns and major causes of infertility among Sudanese couples. Tropical Doctor, 38: 243-244.
. Igietseme, J.U., Omosun, Y., Partin, J., Goldstein, J., He, Q., Joseph, K., Ellerson, D., Ansari, U., Eko, F.O., Bandea, C., Zhong, G., Black, C.M. (2013). Prevention of Chlamydia-induced infertility by inhibition of local caspase activity. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 207(7): 1095-1104.
. Zayed, A., Nabil, H., State, O. and Badawy, A. (2012). Subfertility in women with familial Mediterranean fever. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 38: 1240-1244.
. Caserta, D., Bordi, G., Ciardo, F., Marci, R., La Rocca, C., Tait, S., Bergamasco, B., Stecca, L., Mantovani, A., Guerranti, C., Fanello, E.L., Perra, G., Borghini, F., Focardi, S.E., Moscarini, M., (2013). The influence of endocrine disruptors in a selected population of infertile women. Gynecological Endocrinology, 29(5): 444-447.
. van Oostrum, N., De Sutter, P., Meys, J. and Verstraelen, H. (2013). Risks associated with bacterial vaginosis in infertility patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Human Reproduction, 28(7): 1809–1815.
. Ebadi, P., Solhjoo, K., Bagheri, K. and Eftekhar, F. (2011). Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the women with recurrent spontaneous abortion in comparison with the women with uncomplicated delivery. Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 9(1):32-36.
. Fernandes, M.A, Batista, G.I., Carlos Jda, C., Gomes, I.M., Azevedo, K.M., Setúbal, S., Oliveira, S.A., Velarde, L.G., Cardoso, C.A. (2012). Toxoplasma gondii antibody profile in HIV-1-infected and uninfected pregnant women and the impact on congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 16(2):170-174.
. Flegr, J., Kodym, P. and Tolarova, V. (2000). Correlation of duration of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection with personality changes in women. Biological Psychology, 53: 57–68.
. Yolken, R.H. and Torrey, E.F. (2008). Are some cases of psychosis caused by microbial agents? A review of the evidence. Molecular Psychiatry, 13: 470–479.
. Khademvatan, S., Khajeddin, N., Saki, J. and Izadi-Mazidi, S. (2013). Effect of toxoplasmosis on personality profiles of Iranian men and women. South African Journal of Science, 109: 1-4.
. Evardone, M., Alexander, G.M. and Morey, L.C. (2008). Hormones and Borderline Personality Features. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(1): 278–287.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.