Identification and determination of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria Isolated from Septic Wounds
Keywords:Septic wounds, Pathogenic Bacteria, Identification and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance
Wound infection is a global cause of morbidity and mortality across all wound types. Therefore, efficient diagnosis and treatment of wound infection are essential. This study was carried out to identify the pathogenic bacteria in infected wounds of the patient’s attending Sebha city hospitals (Libya) and to determine their resistance profile to the most common antibiotics used in therapy. A total of sixty wound swab specimens were collected and cultured, of which 39 samples showed bacterial growth. Three different species of bacteria were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus 21 (53.9%) were the most common organisms followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10 (25.6%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis 8 (20.5%). The antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolate was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results showed that 90.5% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to vancomycin, 61.9% to tetracycline, 57.1% to amoxicillin, 52.4 % to methicillin, 42.9 to erythromycin and 23.8% to streptomycin. 87.5% of the Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were resistant to vancomycin, 75% to methicillin, 62.5% to tetracycline, 50% to streptomycin 37.5% to amoxicillin, and erythromycin. All the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and highly resistant 90-100% to other antibiotics tested Amoxicillin, Nalidixic acid, Streptomycin, and Tetracycline. The high rate of multiple antibiotic resistance was observed in all bacterial species recovered.
Ahmed, M., Alam, S.N., Khan, O. & Manzar, S. (2007). Post operative wound infection: A surgeon’s dilemma. Pak. J. Surg., 23(1): 41-47.
Angel, D.E., Lloyd, P., Carville, K. & Santamaria, N. (2011). The clinical efficacy of two semi-quantitative wound-swabbing techniques in identifying the causative organism(s) in infected cutaneous wounds. Int. Wound J., 8(2): 176–185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-481X.2010.00765.x.
AAWC (2008). Advancing your practice: Understanding Wound Infection and the Role of Biofilms. Association for the Advancement of Wound Care, Malvern, PA.
Barrow, G.I. & Feltham, R.K.A. (2003). Cowan and steel's Manual for the identification of medical bacteria. 3rd Edn., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 45-120.
Benbow, M. (2010). Wound swabs and chronic wounds. Practice Nurse, 39(9): 27–30.
Bessa, L.J., Fazii, P., Di Giulio, M. & Cellini, L. (2013). Bacterial isolates from infected wounds and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern: some remarks about wound infection. Int. Wound J., 12(1): 47–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/iwj.12049.
Bowler, P.G., Duerden, B.I. & Armstrong, D.G. (2001). Wound microbiology and associated approaches to wound management. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 14(2): 244–269. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.14.2.244-269.2001.
Cheesbrough, M. (2000). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Part 2, Second edn., Cambridge University Press, UK.
Cutting, K.F. (2010). Addressing the challenge of wound cleansing in the modern era. Br. J. Nurs., 19(11): S24–S29. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2010.19.Sup4.48423.
Stevens, D.L., Bisno, A.L., Chambers, H.F., Everett, E.D., Dellinger, P., Goldstein, E.J., Gorbach, S.L., Hirschmann, J.V., Kaplan, E.L., Montoya, J.G. & Wade, J.C. (2005). Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clin. Infect. Dis., 41(10): 1373–1406. https://doi.org/10.1086/497143.
Edwards, R. & Harding, K.G. (2004). Bacteria and wound healing. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis., 17(2): 91–96. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001432-200404000-00004.
EWMA (2008). Position Document: Hard-to-heal wounds: a holistic approach. European Wound Management Association, MEP Ltd., London.
EWMA (2005). Position Document: Identifying criteria for wound infection. European Wound Management Association, MEP Ltd., London.
Fierheller, M. & Sibbald, R.G. (2010). A clinical investigation into the relationship between increased periwound skin temperature and local wound infection in patients with chronic leg ulcers. Adv. Skin Wound Care, 23(8): 369–381. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASW.0000383197.28192.98.
Gottrup, F., Apelqvist, J., Bjarnsholt, T., Cooper, R., Moore, Z., Peters, E.J. & Probst, S. (2013). EWMA document: Antimicrobials and non-healing wounds. Evidence, controversies and suggestions. J. Wound Care, 22(5 Suppl): S1–S89. https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2013.22.Sup5.S1.
Godebo, G., Kibru, G. & Tassew, H. (2013). Multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates in infected wounds at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob., 12: 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-12-17.
Manikandan, C. & Amsath, A. (2013). Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial strains isolated from wound infection patients in Pattukkottai, Tamilnadu, India. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 2(6): 195-203.
Martins, A. & Cunha, M. (2007). Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci: epidemiological and molecular aspects. Microbiol. Immunol., 51(9): 787–795. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2007.tb03968.x.
Mama, M., Abdissa, A. & Sewunet, T. (2014). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to alternative topical agents at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South-West Ethiopia. Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob., 13: 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-13-14.
NCCLS (2004). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; 14th informational supplement. Approved standard M100-S14. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.
Ndip, R.N., Dilonga, H.M., Ndip, L.M., Akoachere, J.F. & Nkuo Akenji, T. (2005). Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from clinical and environmental samples in Buea, Cameroon: current status on biotyping and antibiogram. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 10(1): 74–81. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01353.x.
Nichols, R.L. (2001). Preventing surgical site infections: a surgeon's perspective. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 7(2): 220–224. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.010214.
Ozkuyumcu, C., Durupinar, B. & Girişken, E. (1989). Yara enfeksiyonlarindan izole edilen gram pozitif bakteriler ve çeşitli antibiyotiklere duyarliliklari [Detection of gram-positive bacteria isolated from wound infections and their susceptibility to various antibiotics]. Mikrobiyol. Bul., 23(2): 150–156.
Posnett, J., Gottrup, F., Lundgren, H. & Saal, G. (2009). The resource impact of wounds on health-care providers in Europe. J. Wound Care, 18(4): 154–161. https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2009.18.4.41607.
Shittu, A.O., Kolawole, D.O. & Oyedepo, E.A.R. (2002). A study of wound infections in two health institutions in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 5(3): 97–102. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajbr.v5i3.53994.
Stefani, S. & Varaldo, P.E. (2003). Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in Europe. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 9(12): 1179–1186. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2003.00698.x.
Thanni, L.O., Osinupebi, O.A. & Deji-Agboola, M. (2003). Prevalence of bacterial pathogens in infected wounds in a tertiary hospital, 1995-2001: any change in trend? J. Natl. Med. Assoc., 95(12): 1189–1195.
Williams, J.D. & Sefton, A.M. (1999). The prevention of antibiotic resistance during treatment. Infection, 27 Suppl 2: S29–S31. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02561667.
Wysocki, A.B. (2002). Evaluating and managing open skin wounds: colonization versus infection. AACN Clin. Issues, 13(3): 382–397. https://doi.org/10.1097/00044067-200208000-00005.
Zafar, A., Anwar, N. & Ejaz, H. (2008). Bacteriology of Infected Wounds – A Study Conducted at Children Hospital Lahore. Biomedica, 24: 71-74.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.