Screening of Aeromonads as associated pathogens from Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial infections in the aquaculture industry, West Bengal, India
The disease termed as ‘Ulcerative disease’ or ‘Erythematous disease’ is found in fishes and fish handlers and is caused by a group of waterborne Mycobacterium spp. called non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The wounds are frequently invaded by secondary pathogens like Aeromonas spp. which is ubiquitous in nature. NTMs are free-living bacterium inhabiting water bodies, causing skin lesions in fish and fish handlers. The secondary invaders are natural inhabitants and are found in excess due to anthropogenic pollution in aquatic environments affecting the fishes and human subjects as low-level latent infectants in wounds caused by NTM. This study highlights the various aspects mycobacteriosis followed by secondary infection and hemorrhagic septicemia caused by Aeromonas spp. in the state of West Bengal (WB), India. NTM and Aeromonas spp. samples were examined from different districts of WB. In the case of Fish handlers, NTM infection as well as Aeromonas spp. infected wounds were highly significant (correlation coefficient (ρ) 0.859, p<0.01). Ulcerative fishes predominant with NTMs were significantly higher in the total samples studied (correlation coefficient 0.718, p<0.01) than the fishes infected with both Aeromonas spp. and NTM (ρ 0.188, p< 0.5). Systematic reporting of mycobacteriosis and associated pathogens studied here will help to improvise the drug regimes used in culture-based fisheries systems.
. Parikka, M., Hammarén, M.M., Harjula, S.K., Halfpenny, N.J., Oksanen, K.E., Lahtinen, M.J., Pajula, E.T., Iivanainen, A., Pesu, M., Rämet, M. (2012). Mycobacterium marinum causes a latent infection that can be reactivated by gamma irradiation in Adult Zebrafish. PLoS Pathogens, 8:e1002944. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002944.
. Jacobs, J.M., Stine, C.B., Baya, A.M., Kent, M.L. (2009). A review of mycobacteriosis in marine fish. J. Fish Dis., 32:119-130.
. Collins, C.H., Grange, J.M. & Yates, M.D. (1984). Mycobacteria in water. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 57:193–211.
. Aronson, J.D. (1926). Spontaneous tuberculosis in salt water fish. J. Infect. Dis., 39: 315–20.
. Decostere, A., Hermans, K., Haesebrouck, F. (2004). Piscine mycobacteriosis: a literature review covering the agent and the disease it causes in fish and humans. Vet. Microbiol., 99:159-166.
. Norden, A. & Linell, F. (1951). A new type of pathogenic Mycobacterium. Nature, 168: 826.
. Ang, P., Rattana-Apiromyakij, N., Goh, C.L. (2000). Retrospective study of Mycobacterium marinum skin infections. Int. J. Dermatol., 39:343-347.
. Gauthier, D.T., Rhodes, M.W. (2009). Mycobacteriosis in fishes: A review. Vet. J., 180:33-47.
. Jernigan, J.A. & Farr, B.M. (2000). Incubation period and sources of exposure for cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection: Case report and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis., 31: 439–443.
. Phung, T.N., Caruso, D., Godreuil, S., Keck, N., Vallaeys, T., Avarre, J.C. (2013). Rapid detection and identification of nontuberculous mycobacterial pathogens in fish by using high-resolution melting analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 79(24):7837-7845. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00822-13.
. Davis, W.A. 2nd, Kane, J.G., Garagusi, V.F. (1978). Human Aeromonas infections: a review of the literature and a case report of endocarditis. Medicine, 57:267-277.
. Hayes, John. Aeromonas hydrophila. Oregon State University.
. Novotny, L., Dvorska, L., Lorencova, A., Beran, V. & Pavlik, I. (2004). Fish: a potential source of bacterial pathogens for human beings. Vet. Med. -Czech, 49(9):343–358.
. Hosseini Fard, S.M., Yossefi, M.R., Esfandiari, B., Sefidgar, S.A. (2011). Mycobacterium marinum as a cause of skin chronic granulomatous in the hand. Caspian J. Intern. Med., 2(1):198-200.
. Gray, S.F., Smith, R.S., Reynolds, N.J. & Williams, E.W. (1990). Fish tank granuloma. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 300(6731): 1069-70.
. Belić, M., Miljković, J., Marko, P.B. (2006). Sporotrichoid presentation of Mycobacterium marinum infection of the Upper Extremity. A case report. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat., 15(3): 135-139.
. Braunstein, M., Bardarov, S.S., Jacobs, W.R. Jr. (2002). Genetics methods for Deciphering Virulence Determinants of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Methods in Enzymology, 358:67-99.
. Tobin, E.H. & Jih, W.W. (2001). Sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous infections: etiology, diagnosis, and therapy. Am. Fam. Physician, 63: 326–32.
. Lillis, J.V., Winthrop, K.L., White, C.R., Simpson, E.L. (2008). Mycobacterium marinum presenting as large verrucous plaques on the lower extremity of a south pacific islander. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 79(2):166–7.
. Williams, C.S. & Riordan, D.C. (1973). Mycobacterium marinum (atypical acid-fast bacillus) infections of the hand: a report of six cases. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 55:1042–50.
. Chauhan, M.M., Mahadev, B., Balasangameshwara, V.H., Srikantaramu, N. (1999). Assessment of Trisodium Phosphate for storage and Isolation of Mycobacteria In single step Culture Method. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, 46: 29-36.
. Ostland, V.E., Watral, V., Whipps, C.M., Austin, F.W., St-Hilaire, S., Westerman, M.E., Kent, M.L. (2008). Biochemical, molecular, and virulence characteristics of select Mycobacterium marinum isolates in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Dis. Aquat. Organ., 79:107-118.
. Oliver, J.D. (2005). Wound infections caused by Vibrio vulnificus and other marine bacteria. Epidemiol. Infect., 133(3):383-391.
. Clark, R.B., Spector, H., Friedman, D.M., Oldrati, K.J., Young, C.L., Nelson, S.C. (1990). Osteomyelitis and synovitis produced by Mycobacterium marinum in a fisherman. J. Clin. Microbiol., 28(11):2570-2572.
. Hsiao, P.F., Tzen, C.Y., Chen, H.C. & Su, H.Y. (2003). Polymerase chain reaction based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tissues showing granulomatous inflammation without demonstrable acid-fast bacilli. Int. J. Dermatol., 42:281-6.
. Lewis, F.M., Marsh, B.J. & von Reyn, C.F. (2003). Fish tank exposure and cutaneous infections due to Mycobacterium marinum: tuberculin skin testing, treatment, and prevention. Clin. Infect. Dis., 37:390–7.
. Kullavanijaya, P., Sirimachan, S. & Bhuddhavudhikrai, P. (1993). Mycobacterium marinum cutaneous infections acquired from occupations and hobbies. Int. J. Dermatol., 32:504-7.
. Lautrop, H. (1961). Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from human faeces and its possible pathological significance. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand., 51(Suppl 144):299–301.
. Von Graevenitz, A. & Mensch, A.H. (1968). The genus Aeromonas in human bacteriology: report of 30 cases and review of the literature. N. Engl. J. Med., 278:245-249.
. Kaper, J.B., Lockman, H., Colwell, R.R. & Joseph, S.W. (1981). Aeromonas hydrophila: ecology and toxigenicity of isolates from an estuary. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 50:359-377.
. Topić Popovic, N., Teskeredzić, E., Strunjak-Perović, I. & Coz-Rakovac, R. (2000). Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Wild Freshwater Fish in Croatia. Vet. Res. Commun., 24: 371-377.
. Plumb, J.A. (1994). Health Maintenance of Cultured Fishes: Principal Microbial Diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 254.
. Eissa, A.E., Moustafa, M., Abdelaziz, M., Ezzeldeen, N.A. (2008). Yersinia ruckeri infection in cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, at a semi-intensive fish farm in Lower Egypt. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 33: 283-286.
. Doukas, V., Athanassopoulou, F., Karagouni, E. & Dotsika, E. (1998). Aeromonas hydrophila infection in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., and Puntazzo puntazzo Cuvier from the Aegean Sea. Journal of Fish Diseases, 21: 317-320.
. Shukla, S., Sharma, R. & Shukla, S.K. (2013). Detection and identification of globally distributed mycobacterial fish pathogens in some ornamental fish in India. Folia Microbiol., 58:429–436.
. Parashar, D., Chauhan, D.S., Sharma, V.D., Chauhan, A., Chauhan, S.V., Katoch, V.M. (2004). Optimization of procedures for isolation of mycobacteria from soil and water samples obtained in northern India. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 70: 3751-3.
. Austin, B., Austin, D.A. (2007). Bacterial fish pathogens. Diseases of Farmed and Wild Fish. 4th edn. Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK, pp. 272–275.
. Astrofsky, K.M., Schrenzel, M.D., Bullis, R.A., Smolowitz, R.M., Fox, J.G. (2000). Diagnosis and management of atypical Mycobacterium spp. infections in established laboratory zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) facilities. Comp. Med., 50:666–672.
. Conte, F.S. (2004) Stress and the welfare of cultured fish. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 86: 205-223.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.