Cuticular Biochemistry: Lambda-Cyhalothrin Induced Alterations in Mutant Drosophila melanogaster
Derivatives of natural pyrethrum, synthetic pyrethroids, are well-established neurotoxins. However, they do interfere with the functioning of metabolic processes; the most important of these is chitin metabolism, a key process in the development of insects. Type II synthetic pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin, when orally fed to Drosophila melanogaster revealed its efficacy in chitin synthesis modulation. Total proteins, glucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, chitinase activity and chitin content exhibit significant changes in the final developmental stage, the adults. A reduction in chitin synthesis is suggestive of interference in polymerization process which is a must for cuticle formation. Involvement of lambda-cyhalothrin in chitin synthesis has been sought to be an additional mode of action, other than its neurotoxic nature.
. Finney, D.J. (1971). Probit Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 303 pp.
. Fisher, R.A. and Yates, F. (1963). Statistical Tables for Biological, Agricultural and Medical Research. 6th Ed., Oliver & Boyd, London. 146 pp.
. Gardell, S. (1958). Determination of Hexosamines. In: D. Glick (ed.), Methods of Biochemical Analysis, Vol. 6, Interscience Publishers, New York. 289 pp.
. Hackman, R.H. (1954). Studies on chitin. I. Enzymic degradation of chitin and chitin esters. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 7: 168-178.
. Hajjar, N.P. (1979). Mechanism of the insecticidal action of diflubenzuron. Diss. Abstr. Int. B, 39(8): 3676.
. Karaiyan, K. and Thangaraj, T. (1999). Exochitinase activity in the pharate pupal cuticle of the moringa pest, Eupterote mollifera and the coconut pest, Oryctes rhinoceros. Indian Journal of Entomology, 61(3): 226 - 235.
. Kramer, K.J., Hopkins, T.L. and Schaefer, J. (1995). Applications of solids NMR to the analysis of insect sclerotized structures. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 25(10): 1067-1080.
. Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193: 265-275.
. Merzendorfer, H., Zimoch, L. (2003). Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 206: 4393-4412.
. Muzzarelli, R.A.A. (1974). A future ecological tragedy. Insecticidal inhibition of the synthesis of chitin. Inquinamento, 16(3): 29-30.
. Reissig, J.L., Storminger, J.L., Leloir, L.F. (1955). A modified colorimetric method for the estimation of N-acetylamino sugars. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 217: 959-966.
. Saxena, S.C. and Kumar, V. (1981). Blockage in chitin biosynthetic chain in the grasshopper Chrotogonus trachypterus treated with diflubenzuron and penfluron. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 19: 1199-1200.
. Soderlund, D.M. and Knipple, D.C. (2003). The molecular biology of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 33: 563-577.
. Tufail, N. and Shakoori, A.R. (1992). Alphamethrin toxicity in Tribolium castaneum larvae. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 24(1), 59-70.
. Verma, A. and Nath, G. (1995). Toxicity of carbaryl on hemolymph protein of late larvae and pharate pupae of Spodoptera litura Fab. Indian Journal of Entomology, 57(2): 83-88.
. Wouters, W. and Bercken, J.V.D. (1978). Action of pyrethroids. General Pharmacology, 9: 387-398.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.