Heavy metal accumulation by Mosses as affected by roadside pollutants

  • Farhad Hasan Aziz Environmental Sciences Department, College of Science, University of Salahaddin – Hawler, Iraqi Kurdistan region, Iraq.
  • Soran Faisal Khdir Environmental Sciences Department, College of Science, University of Salahaddin – Hawler, Iraqi Kurdistan region, Iraq.
Keywords: Dry condition, Erbil, Iraq, Heavy metal, Mosses

Abstract

Mosses sampling were collected from 10 sites within the Erbil governorate in October 2015 during dry condition. The samples were air dried and crushed to fine particulates using rotary, then after the heavy metals concentration were determined by Genius XRF spectrophotometer (Skyray Instruments, USA). Location Map of selected mosses distribution were made. The results revealed that the mean values of Pb was 52.25mg/kg, Hg was 0.01mg/kg, Mn was 162.8mg/kg, Fe was 1.655%, Cu was 8.27mg/kg, Zn was 162mg/kg, Ti was 851.1mg/kg, Co was 6.28mg/kg, Ni was 57.57mg/kg, As was 6.84mg/kg, Se was 0.19mg/kg and Cr was 9.73mg/kg. The statistical results indicated that there were significant difference (P<0.05) between sites and mosses species. The data obtained in this study was compared with that of WHO standards, the results revealed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were less than of WHO standards.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

[1]. Abdullah, M.Z., Ismail, A., Mahammad, N.I. (2014). Statistical Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentration in Moss and Soil as Indicator of Industrial Pollution. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 3(3): 762 – 775.
[2]. Aslan, A., Çiçek, A., Yazıcı, K., Karagöz, Y., Turan, M., Akkuş, F. and Yıldırım, O.S. (2011). The assessment of lichens as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution from motor vehicles activities. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(7): 1698–706.
[3]. Aziz, F. H. (2011). Seventeen spp. new records for the Moss flora of Iraq. Phyton International Journal Experimental Botany, 80: 35-46.
[4]. Baranowska, I. and Srogi, K. (2000). Determination of Heavy Metals in Samples of Moss by DPV. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 9(4): 329-333.
[5]. Brady, N.C. (1974). The nature and properties of soils. 8th Ed., Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.
[6]. Buringh, P. (1960). Soils and Soil Conditions in Iraq. Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, 337 p.
[7]. Bykowszczenko, N., Baranowska-Bosiacka, I., Bosiacka, B., Kaczmarek, A., Chlubek, D. (2006). Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Mosses of Słowiński National Park Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Neutron Activation Analysis Methods. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 15(1): 41-46.
[8]. Ekpo, B.O., Uno, U.A., Adie, A.P., Ibok, U.J. (2012). Comparative Study of Levels of Trace Metals in Moss Species in Some Cities of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(3): 127-135.
[9]. Ene, A., Bosneaga, A., & Georgescu, L. (2010). Determination of heavy metals in soils using XRF technique. Romanian Journal of Physics, 55(7-8): 815-820.
[10]. LeBlanc, F. & Rao, D.N. (1974). A review of the literature on Bryophytes with respect to air pollution. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 121:sup2, 237-255, DOI: 10.1080/00378941.1974.10839310.
[11]. Frontasyeva, M.V., Nazarov, V.M. & Steinnes, E. (1994). Moss as monitor of heavy metal deposition: Comparison of different multi-element analytical techniques. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 181(2): 363–371.
[12]. Govindapyari, H., Leleeka, M., Nivedita, M. & Uniyal, P.L. (2010). Bryophytes: indicators and monitoring agents of pollution. NeBIO, 1(1): 35-41.
[13]. Guest, E. (1966). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 1. Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq.
[14]. Hama, R.H., Hamad, R.T. & Aziz, F.H. (2014). Climate change in relation to rainfall and temperature in Erbil province, Kurdistan, Iraq. Tunisian Association of Digital Geographic Information, 8th international congress, Geo Tunis, 2-6 April.
[15]. Harmens, H., Norris, D.A., Cooper, D.M., Mills, G., Steinnes, E., Kubin, E., Thöni, L., Aboal, J.R., Alber, R., Carballeira, A., Coşkun, M., De Temmerman, L., Frolova, M., González-Miqueo, L., Jeran, Z., Leblond, S., Liiv, S., Maňkovská, B., Pesch, R., Poikolainen, J., Rühling, A., Santamaria, J.M., Simonèiè, P., Schröder, W., Suchara, I., Yurukova, L., Zechmeister, H.G. (2011). Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe. Environmental Pollution, 159: 2852-2860.
[16]. Harmens, H., Norris, D.A., Steinnes, E., Kubin, E., Piispanen, J., Alber, R., Aleksiayenak, Y., Blum, O., Coşkun, M., Dam, M., De Temmerman, L., Fernández, J.A., Frolova, M., Frontasyeva, M., González-Miqueo, L., Grodzińska, K., Jeran, Z., Korzekwa, S., Krmar, M., Kvietkus, K., Leblond, S., Liiv, S., Magnússon, S.H., Mankovská, B., Pesch, R., Rühling, A., Santamaria, J.M., Schröder, W., Spiric, Z., Suchara, I., Thöni, L., Urumov, V., Yurukova, L., Zechmeister, H.G. (2008). Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe. Environmental Pollution, 158: 3144-3156.
[17]. Harmens, H., Norris, D., Mills, G. (2013). Heavy metals and nitrogen in mosses: spatial patterns in (2010/2011) and long-term temporal trends in Europe, Bangor, UK: ICP Vegetation Programme Coordination Centre, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
[18]. Harmens, H., Foan, L., Simon, V. and Mills, G. (2011). Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: A review. Report for Defra contract AQ08610. NERC/Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 26pp. (CEH Project Number: C04062).
[19]. Haqus, M.D. and Hameed, H.A. (1986). Lead content of green forage growing adjacent to expressways and roads connecting Erbil City (Northern Iraq). Journal of Biological Science Research, 17:151–164.
[20]. Kaminski, M.D., Landsberger, S. (2000). Heavy Metals in Urban Soils of East St. Louis, IL, Part I: Total Concentration of Heavy Metals in Soils. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 50(9): 1667-1679.
[21]. Kasai, F. and Ichimura, T. (1986). Morphological Variabilities of three closely related Mating Groups of Closterium ehrenbergii Meneghini (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology, 22: 158-168. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1986.tb04159.x.
[22]. LeBlanc, F., Robitaille, G. and Rao, D.N. (1974). Biological response of lichens and bryophytes to environmental pollution in the Murdochville copper mine area, Quebec. Journal-Hattori Botanical Laboratory, 38: 405-433.
[23]. Muhammad, S.F. (2003). Ecological studies on some air pollutants impact human health, Nerium oleander L. and Phragmites australis L. plants within Hawler city. M.Sc. Thesis College of Education, University of Salahaddin-Hawler, Iraq.
[24]. Ojo, F.P., Oluseye, O.C. and Abiola, O.G. (2012). Mosses as Biomonitors of Heavy Metal Deposition in the Atmosphere. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1(2): 56-62.
[25]. Røyset, O., Vadset, M., Johansen, O., Steinnes, E. (1995). Multielement ICPMS Analysis of Moss used as Biomonotor of Air Pollutants, Rep. TR 1/95, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway.
[26]. Rühling, Å., Ed. (1994). Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Europe—Estimations Used on Moss Analysis. NORD 1994:9, Nordic Council of Ministry, Copenhagen.
[27]. Rühling, Å. and Tyler, G. (1968). An ecological approach to the lead problem. Botaniska Notiser, 121: 321–342.
[28]. Santelmann, M.V. and Gorham, E. (1988). The influence of airborne road dust on the chemistry of Sphagnum mosses. Journal of Ecology, 76(4): 1219-1231.
[29]. Steinnes, E., Allen, R.O., Petersen, H.M., Rambæk, J.P., Varskog, P. (1997). Evidence of large-scale heavy-metal contamination of natural surface soils in Norway from long-range atmospheric transport. Science of the Total Environment, 205(2–3): 255-266.
[30]. Steinnes, E. (1980). Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway studied by the analysis of moss samples using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry, 58: 387-391.
[31]. WFP (World Food Program, 2002). Statistical Report on population of Iraq Kurdistan Region.
Published
2016-07-01
How to Cite
Aziz, F., & Khdir, S. (2016). Heavy metal accumulation by Mosses as affected by roadside pollutants. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology, 7(3), 86-93. Retrieved from https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/256
Section
Articles