Prevalence and genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in large ruminants of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, North India
Keywords:Paratuberculosis, Domestic large ruminants, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Bison Type, Eastern Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is the fourth largest, most populous and leading milk and meat producing state in India. Despite the huge livestock population, information on the status of paratuberculosis homogeneity and heterogeneity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates of eastern Uttar Pradesh is non-existent. Present study was aimed to estimate the presence of MAP in large ruminants (Cattle and Buffaloes) of eastern Uttar Pradesh. A total 108 fecal samples were collected from farmer’s herds of large ruminants (cattle and buffaloes) from different geographical regions (Chandauli, Mughalsarai, Gazipur, and Naugarh) of eastern Uttar Pradesh and screened for the presence of MAP infection using microscopic examination, direct IS900 PCR and culture on Herrold egg yolk (HEY) medium. The isolates recovered on HEY medium were subjected to molecular identification and genotyping using IS900 PCR and IS1311 PCR-REA method, respectively. Of the 108 fecal samples, 25 (23.14%) and 11 (10.18%) samples were positive for the presence of acid-fast bacilli and growth on HEY medium, respectively. Species-wise, 17.5, 7.5% and 26.5, 11.7% fecal samples from cattle and buffaloes were found positive for the presence of acid-fast bacilli and growth on HEY medium, respectively. Isolates recovered on HEY medium with mycobactin J were positive for IS900 sequence and genotyped as Bison Type using IS1311 PCR-REA method. Present study is the first report on the presence of MAP infection and ‘Bison Type’ genotype of MAP in eastern Uttar Pradesh. These findings will be useful for the intervention of effective control measures in order to reduce the prevalence of MAP infection in domestic livestock species and prevent its spread to the human population in the regions.
Nielsen, S.S. & Toft, N. (2009). A review of prevalences of paratuberculosis in farmed animals in Europe. Prev. Vet. Med., 88(1): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2008.07.003.
Beard, P.M., Daniels, M.J., Henderson, D., Pirie, A., Rudge, K., Buxton, D., Rhind, S., Greig, A., Hutchings, M.R., McKendrick, I., Stevenson, K. & Sharp, J.M. (2001). Paratuberculosis infection of nonruminant wildlife in Scotland. J. Clin. Microbiol., 39(4): 1517–1521. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.39.4.1517-1521.2001.
Singh, S.V., Singh, A.V., Singh, P.K., Kumar, A. & Singh, B. (2011). Molecular identification and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in free living non-human primate (Rhesus macaques) from North India. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 34(3): 267–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2010.12.004.
Pierce, E.S. (2009). Where are all the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease? PLoS Pathog., 5(3): e1000234. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000234.
Wynne, J.W., Bull, T.J., Seemann, T., Bulach, D.M., Wagner, J., Kirkwood, C.D. & Michalski, W.P. (2011). Exploring the zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis through comparative genomics. PloS One, 6(7): e22171. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022171.
Hasonova, L. & Pavlik, I. (2006). Economic impact of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle herds: a review. Veterinarni Medicina, 51: 193-211. https://doi.org/10.17221/5539-VETMED.
Singh, A.V., Singh, S.V., Singh, P.K. & Sohal, J.S. (2010). Genotype diversity in Indian isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis recovered from domestic and wild ruminants from different agro-climatic regions. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 33(6): e127–e131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2010.08.001.
Singh, S.V., Singh, P.K., Singh, A.V., Sohal, J.S., Kumar, N., Chaubey, K.K., Gupta, S., Rawat, K.D., Kumar, A., Bhatia, A.K., Srivastav, A.K. & Dhama, K. (2014). 'Bio-load' and bio-type profiles of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in the domestic livestock population endemic for Johne's disease: a survey of 28 years (1985-2013) in India. Transbound. Emerg. Dis., 61: 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12216.
Sohal, J.S., Singh, S.V., Singh, B., Thakur, S., Aseri, G.K., Jain, N., Jayaraman, S., Yadav, P., Khare, N., Gupta, S., Chaubey, K.K. & Dhama, K. (2015). Control of paratuberculosis: opinions and practices. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci., 3(3): 156-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.14737/journal.aavs/2015/18.104.22.168.
Rawat, K.D., Chaudhary, S., Kumar, N., Gupta, S., Chaubey, K.K., Singh, S.V., Dhama, K. & Deb, R. (2014). Economic Losses in a Commercial Dairy Farm due to the Outbreak of Johne's disease in India. Res. J. Vet. Pract., 2(5): 73–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.14737/journal.rjvp/22.214.171.124.
Tripathi, B.N. (2007). Paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease): The history and a critical appraisal. In: Tripathi, B.N. & Romavanshi, R. (Eds.), Proceedings of National Seminar and Workshop on Johne’s Disease, Izatnagar, India, pp. 13-16.
Basic Animal Husbandry & Fisheries Statistics (2014). Department of Animal Husbandry, dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
Singh, S.V., Singh, A.V., Singh, R., Sharma, S., Shukla, N., Misra, S., Singh, P.K., Sohal, J.S., Kumar, H., Patil, P.K., Misra, P. & Sandhu, K.S. (2008). Sero-prevalence of bovine Johne's disease in buffaloes and cattle population of North India using indigenous ELISA kit based on native Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'Bison type' genotype of goat origin. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 31(5): 419–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2007.06.002.
Singh, A.V., Singh, S.V., Singh, P.K., Sohal, J.S., Swain, N., Rajindran, A.S. & Vinodh, O.R. (2009). Multiple tests based prevalence estimates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in elite farms of goats and sheep. Indian J. Small Rumin., 15(2): 178-182.
Vary, P.H., Andersen, P.R., Green, E., Hermon-Taylor, J. & McFadden, J.J. (1990). Use of highly specific DNA probes and the polymerase chain reaction to detect Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Johne's disease. J. Clin. Microbiol., 28(5): 933–937. https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.28.5.933-937.1990.
Sevilla, I.x., Singh, S.V., Garrido, J.M., Aduriz, G., Rodríguez, S., Geijo, M.V., Whittington, R.J., Saunders, V., Whitlock, R.H. & Juste, R.A. (2005). Molecular typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains from different hosts and regions. Rev. Sci. Tech., 24(3): 1061–1066.
Whittington, R.J., Marsh, I.B. & Whitlock, R.H. (2001). Typing of IS 1311 polymorphisms confirms that bison (Bison bison) with paratuberculosis in Montana are infected with a strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis distinct from that occurring in cattle and other domesticated livestock. Mol. Cell. Probes., 15(3): 139–145. https://doi.org/10.1006/mcpr.2001.0346.
Mishra, P., Singh, S.V., Bhatiya, A.K., Singh, P.K. & Sohal, J.S. (2009). Prevelance of Bovine Johne's disease (BJD) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis genotypes in dairy cattle herds of Mathura districts. Ind. J. Comp. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. Dis., 30: 23–25.
Barad, D.B., Chandel, B.S., Dadawala, A.I., Chauhan, H.C., Kher, H.N., Shroff, S., Bhagat, A.G., Singh, S.V., Singh, P.K., Singh, A.V., Sohal, J.S., Gupta, S. & Chaubey K.K. (2013). Comparative potential of traditional versus modern diagnostic tests in estimating status of caprine johne’s disease. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci., 1: 35-40.
Kumar, S., Singh, S.V., Singh, A.V., Singh, P.K., Sohal, J.S. & Maitra, A. (2010). Wildlife (Boselaphus tragocamelus)-small ruminant (goat and sheep) interface in the transmission of 'Bison type' genotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in India. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 33(2): 145–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2008.08.006.
Singh, S.V., Singh, A.V., Singh, P.K., Singh, B., Ranjendran, A.S. & Swain, N. (2011). Recovery of Indian Bison Type Genotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Wild Bison (Bos gourus) in India. Vet. Res., 4(3): 61–65.
Mishra, A., Singhal, A., Chauhan, D.S., Katoch, V.M., Srivastava, K., Thakral, S.S., Bharadwaj, S.S., Sreenivas, V. & Prasad, H.K. (2005). Direct detection and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in bovine samples by a novel nested PCR assay: correlation with conventional techniques. J. Clin. Microbiol., 43(11): 5670–5678. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.43.11.5670-5678.2005.
Srivastava, K., Chauhan, D.S., Gupta, P., Singh, H.B., Sharma, V.D., Yadav, V.S., Sreekumaran, Thakral, S.S., Dharamdheeran, J.S., Nigam, P., Prasad, H.K. & Katoch, V.M. (2008). Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis & M. tuberculosis from cattle of some farms in north India--possible relevance in human health. Indian J. Med. Res., 128(1): 26–31.
Rideout, B.A., Brown, S.T., Davis, W.C., Giannella, R.A., Huestan, W.D. & Hutchinson, L.J. (2003). Diagnosis and control of Johne's disease [online]. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Available at: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/10625/diagnosis-and-control-of-johnes-disease.
Sharma, G., Singh, S.V., Sevilla, I., Singh, A.V., Whittington, R.J., Juste, R.A., Kumar, S., Gupta, V.K., Singh, P.K., Sohal, J.S. & Vihan, V.S. (2008). Evaluation of indigenous milk ELISA with m-culture and m-PCR for the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease (BJD) in lactating Indian dairy cattle. Res. Vet. Sci., 84(1): 30–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.03.014.
Yadav, D., Singh, S.V., Singh, A.V., Sevilla, I., Juste, R.A., Singh, P.K. & Sohal, J.S. (2008). Pathogenic 'Bison-type' Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis genotype characterized from riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in North India. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 31(4): 373–387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2007.06.007.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2016 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.