Prevalence of Color Blindness among Students of four basic schools in Koya City


  • Harem Othman Smail Department of Biology, Koya University, University Park, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koysinjaq, Kurdistan Region –Iraq.
  • Evan Mustafa Ismael Department of Biology, Koya University, University Park, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koysinjaq, Kurdistan Region –Iraq.
  • Sayran Anwer Ali Department of Biology, Koya University, University Park, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koysinjaq, Kurdistan Region –Iraq.


Color blindness, Prevalence, Pseudoisochromatic Ishihara color test, X-linked recessive disorder, Opsin


Color blindness or color vision deficiency is X-linked recessive disorder that affects males more frequently than females. Abnormality in any one or all three cone photoreceptors caused Congenital disorders. Protanopia, deuteranopia results when long wavelength (L), photopigments (red), middle wavelength (M) and photopigments (green) are missing.

This cross-sectional study was done to find out the prevalence of color vision deficiency among basic school students in Koya city with different ages and genders. The study was conducted in four basic schools that were present in Koya city (Zheen, Zanst, Nawroz and Najibaxan).

All students screened by using Ishihara 24 plates. For the study (n=400, male=206, female=194, age=8-14) were selected & examined. The result revealed that the prevalence rate of the deficiency in four primary schools 3.39% (7) in males and 0% females.  The study concluded that color blindness is different between students in each school, cannot find the prevalence of Color blindness in females in each school and affects males more than females because color blindness is an X-linked recessive disorder. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of color blindness in some basic schools in Koya city, Kurdistan Region/ Iraq.


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How to Cite

Smail, H. O., Ismael, E. M., & Ali, S. A. (2019). Prevalence of Color Blindness among Students of four basic schools in Koya City. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology, 10(2), 31–34. Retrieved from