Molecular Markers in determining Phylogenetic relationship in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) Var. Co(Te)7


  • I. Anittha Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • L. Mullainathan Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002, Tamil Nadu, India.


Setaria italica, M2 generation, RAPD, Primers, Mutants


The degree of polymorphism in seven different mutants were assessed along with untreated population, control in Setaria italica var. Co(Te)7. The mutants identified in M2 generation were selected for RAPD analysis to examine the genetic variation between them. The mutant like multiple branched panicle, long Panicle, tall plant, anthocyanin pigmentation in panicle, thumb branched panicle, bold seed, tiller were chosen to compare the banding pattern and distinguishing to evaluate their phylogenetic relationship. The primers chosen for their amplification were OPC11, OPA05, OPA08 and OPA13. All the mutants showed the polymorphism depicting genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship in the foxtail millet var. Co(Te)7. Due to the exclusive design of genetic background, therapeutic potential, nutritional benefits and the traits of agronomic values hike the need for cultivation methodology in Co(Te)7 variety in foxtail millet. The dendrogram constructed based on UPGMA clustering method revealed the diverse genotype between the essential mutants utilized for increased crop improvement program.


Download data is not yet available.


[1]. Yang, X., Wan, Z., Perry, L., Lu, H., Wang, Q., Zhao, C., Li, J., Xie, F., Yu, J., Cui, T., Wang, T., Li, M. & Ge, Q. (2012). Early millet use in northern China. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 109(10): 3726–3730. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1115430109.
[2]. Mullainathan, L. & Umavathi, S. (2018). Effect of gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) on yield and yield attributes of Cicer arietinum in M1 generation. 1(1): 01–04. doi: 10.25081/ia.2018.v1.i1.1030.
[3]. Diao, X., Schnable, J., Bennetzen, J.L. & Li, J. (2014). Initiation of Setaria as a model plant. Front. Agric. Sci. Eng., 1(1): 16–20. doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014011.
[4]. de Wet, J.M.J., Oestry-Stidd, L. & Cubero, J. (1979). Origins and evolution of foxtail millets (Setaria italica). Journ. d'Agric. Trad. et de Bota. Appl., 26(1): 53–64. doi: 10.3406/jatba.1979.3783.
[5]. Jusuf, M. & Pernes, J. (1985). Genetic variability of foxtail millet (Setaria italica P. Beauv.). Theor. Appl. Genet., 71(3): 385–391. doi: 10.1007/BF00251177.
[6]. Kafi, M., Zamani, Gh. & Horaishi, S.Gh. (2009). Relative salt tolerance of south Khorasan millets. Desert, 14(1): 63-70. doi: 10.22059/jdesert.2010.21748.
[7]. Ardie, S.W., Khumaida, N., Nur, A. & Fauziah, N. (2015). Early Identification of Salt Tolerant Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv). Procedia Food Sci., 3: 303–312. doi: 10.1016/j.profoo.2015.01.033.
[8]. Jali, M.V., Kamatar, M.Y., Jali, S.M., Hiremath, M.B. & Naik, R.K. (2012). Efficacy of Value Added Foxtail Millet Therapeutic Food in the Management of Diabetes and Dyslipidamea in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Recent Res. Sci. Technol., 4(7): 03-04.
[9]. Amadou, I., Gounga, M.E. & Le, G.-W. (2013). Millets: Nutritional Composition, Some Health Benefits and Processing - A Review. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 1: 501–508. doi: 10.9755/ejfa.v25i7.12045.
[10]. Suma, P.F. & Urooj, A. (2012). Antioxidant activity of extracts from foxtail millet (Setaria italica). J. Food Sci. Technol., 49(4): 500–504. doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0300-9.
[11]. Nakayama, H., Namai, H. & Okuno, K. (1999). Geographical variation of the alleles at the two prolamin loci, Pro1 and Pro2, in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. Genes Genet. Syst., 74(6): 293–297. doi: 10.1266/ggs.74.293.
[12]. Pathak, P., Srivastava, S. & Grover, S. (2000). Development of food products based on millets, legumes and fenugreek seeds and their suitability in the diabetic diet. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 51(5): 409–414.
[13]. Arulbalachandran, D., Mullainathan, L., Velu, S., Karthigayan, S. and Somasundaram, S. (2009). Evaluation of Genetic Variation in Mutants of Black Gram (Vigna Mungo (L.) Hepper) as revealed by RAPD Markers. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 21(2): 42-50, doi:
[14]. Schontz, D. & Rether, B. (1999). Genetic variability in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.: Identification and classification of lines with RAPD markers. Plant Breeding, 118(2): 190–192. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0523.1999.118002190.x.
[15]. Agarwal, M., Shrivastava, N. & Padh, H. (2008). Advances in molecular marker techniques and their applications in plant sciences. Plant Cell Rep., 27(4): 617–631. doi: 10.1007/s00299-008-0507-z.
[16]. Doyle, J.J. & Doyle, J.L. (1987). A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem. Bull., 19(1): 11-15.
[17]. Williams, J.G., Kubelik, A.R., Livak, K.J., Rafalski, J.A. & Tingey, S.V. (1990). DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res., 18(22): 6531–6535. doi: 10.1093/nar/18.22.6531.
[18]. Ardie, S.W., Khumaida, N., Fauziah, N. & Yudiansyah (2017). Biodiversity Assessment of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) Genotypes Based on RAPD Marker. J. Trop. Crop Sci., 4(1): 21-25.
[19]. Govarthanan, M., Guruchandar, A., Arunapriya, S., Selvankumar, T. & Selvam K. (2011). Genetic variability among Coleus sp. studied by RAPD banding pattern analysis. Int. J. Biotechnol. Mol. Biol. Res., 2(12): 202-208.
[20]. Kumari, N. & Thakur, S.K. (2014). Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA- A brief review. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 9(1): 6–13. doi: 10.3844/ajavsp.2014.6.13.
[21]. Mullainathan, L., Sridevi, A., Umavathi, S. & Sanjai Gandhi, E. (2014). Genetic variation in mutants of chilli (Capsicum annum) Revealed by RAPD marker. Int. Lett. Nat. Sci., 6: 1-8.
[22]. Nguyen Van, E. & Pernes, J. (1985). Genetic diversity of foxtail millet (Setaria italica). In: Jacquard, P., Heim, G., Antonovics, J. (Eds). Genetic differentiation and dispersal in plants, NATO ASI series, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 113–128.
[23]. Li, Y., Jia, J., Wang, Y. & Wu, S. (1998). Intraspecific and interspecific variation in Setaria revealed by RAPD analysis. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol., 45(3): 279–285. doi: 10.1023/A:1008600123509.
[24]. Wachira, F.N., Waugh, R., Hackett, C.A. & Powell, W. (1995). Detection of genetic diversity in tea (Camellia sinensis) using RAPD markers. Genome, 38(2): 201–210.




How to Cite

Anittha, I., & Mullainathan, L. (2019). Molecular Markers in determining Phylogenetic relationship in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) Var. Co(Te)7. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology, 10(3), 73–78. Retrieved from