Fire Impacts on Forest Ecosystem: With a Focus on the Resilience of Tree Species and Dramatic Change in Insect Populations
Keywords:Haibat-Sultan Mountain, Forest Fire, Thaumetopoea solitaria Freyer, Schistocerca gregaria, Cupressus, Pine, Pistachio, Oak
The research data was collected from forests located at Haibat Sultan Mountain in Koya district for three years from 2014 to 2017. At the sampling location, fire outbreaks occur many times a year. This study aims to determine the environmental impacts of forest fire on vegetation and insects. This results in the identification of the most fire-resistant trees and the impact of burning on the environment. In the Haibat Sultan Mountain forest, four types of tree species are distinguished which are Pine, Cupressus, Pistachio and Oak, their contribution to cover the area is 63%, 19%, 15% and 3% respectively. Oak is the only native tree of the forest and one of the most resistant species, 93 percent of which can survive, but the other species Cupressus, Pine and Pistachio are introduced with different level of vulnerabilities, with 75%, 60% and 41% of combustion rates, respectively. Forest fire has a significant negative impact on the population of Thaumetopoea solitaria Freyer and Schistocerca gregaria, both of which are the main insects of the forest. The average of the number of egg masses of Thaumetopoea solitaria and nymph and adult of Schistocerca gregaria before the fire is (18.8 masses and 4.1 nymphs and adults), but the average declined dramatically to (3.3 masses and 0.9 nymphs and adults) during the fire season. In the post-fire season, the average is increased significantly (6.3 masses and 1.9 nymphs and adults).
Amiro, B.D., Todd, J.B., Wotton, B.M., Logan, K.A., Flannigan, M.D., Stocks, B.J., Mason, J.A., Martell, D.L. & Hirsch, K.G. (2001). Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999. Can. J. For. Res., 31: 512–525. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-31-3-512.
Bahuguna, V.K. & Upadhay, A. (2002). Forest fires in India: policy initiatives for community participation. Int. For. Rev., 4(2): 122–127. https://doi.org/10.1505/IFOR.220.127.116.1146.
Bock, C.E. & Bock, J.H. (1991). Response of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to wildfire in a southeastern Arizona grassland. Am. Midl. Nat., 125(1): 162-167. https://doi.org/10.2307/2426379.
Boerner, R.E.J., Huang, J. & Hart, S.C. (2009). Impacts of Fire and Fire Surrogate treatments on forest soil properties: a meta-analytical approach. Ecol. Appl., 19(2): 338–358. https://doi.org/10.1890/07-1767.1.
Busse, M.D., Cochran, P.H. & Barrett, J.W. (1996). Changes in ponderosa pine site productivity following removal of understory vegetation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 60(6): 1614–1621. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1996.03615995006000060004x.
Calder, I.R. & Aylward, B. (2006). Forest and Floods: Moving to an Evidence-based Approach to Watershed and Integrated Flood Management. Water Int., 31(1): 87–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060608691918.
Cressman, K. (2001). Monitoring Desert Locusts in the Middle East: An Overview. FAO, Locust Group (AGP Division), Rome, Italy.
Dahm, C.N., Candelaria-Ley, R.I., Reale, C.S., Reale, J.K. & Van Horn, D.J. (2015). Extreme water quality degradation following a catastrophic forest fire. Freshw. Biol., 60(12): 2584–2599. https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12548.
Davatchi, G.A. (1958). Etude biologique de la faune entomologique des pistacia sauvages et cultives. Revue de Pathologie Vegetale et d'Entomologie Agricole de France, 37: 49–52.
Dale, V.H., Joyce, L.A., McNulty, S., Neilson, R.P., Ayres, M.P., Flannigan, M.D., Hanson, P.J., Irland, L.C., Lugo, A.E., Peterson, C.J., Simberloff, D., Swanson, F.J., Stocks, B.J. & Wotton, B.M. (2001). Climate Change and Forest Disturbances: Climate change can affect forests by altering the frequency, intensity, duration, and timing of fire, drought, introduced species, insect and pathogen outbreaks, hurricanes, windstorms, ice storms, or landslides, BioScience, 51(9): 723–734. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0723:CCAFD]2.0.CO;2.
DeBano, L.F. (1991). The effect of fire on soil properties. In: Harvey, A.E., Neuenschwander, L.F., (Eds). Proceedings-management and productivity of western-montane forest soils; 1990 April 10-12; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-280. Ogden, UT: USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p. 151-156.
DeBano, L.F., Neary, D.G. & Folliott, P.F. (1998) Fire’s Effect on Ecosystems. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York USA.
de Groot, W.J., Landry, R., Kurz, W.A., Anderson, K.R., Englefield, P., Fraser, R.H., Hall, R.J., Banfield, Ed., Raymond, D.A., Decker, V., Lynham, T.J. & Pritchard, J.M. (2007) Estimating direct carbon emissions from Canadian wildland fires. Int. J. Wildland Fire, 16(5): 593–606. https://doi.org/10.1071/WF06150.
Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A. & Walsh, R.P.D. (2000). Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth Sci. Rev., 51(1): 33–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(00)00011-8.
Er, M.K., Karadağ, S. & Mart, C. (2007). Effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Thaumetopoea solitaria Frey. (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) Larvae in Laboratory Conditions. Turk. J. Agric. For., 31(4): 255–261.
Gindin, G., Kuznetsova, T., Protasov, A., Saphir, N., Madar, Z. & Mendel, Z. (2008). Susceptibility of the pistachio processionary moth Thaumetopoea solitaria to three Bacillus thuringiensis products. Phytoparasitica, 36(5): 472–482. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03020293.
Guiterman, C.H., Margolis, E.Q., Allen, C.D., Falk, D.A. & Swetnam, T.W. (2018). Long-Term Persistence and Fire Resilience of Oak Shrubfields in Dry Conifer Forests of Northern New Mexico. Ecosystems, 21(5): 943–959. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0192-2.
Guo, K., Hao, S.-G., Sun, O.J. & Kang, L. (2009). Differential responses to warming and increased precipitation among three contrasting grasshopper species. Global Change Biol., 15(10): 2539–2548. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01861.x.
Hallett, P.D. (2007). An introduction to soil water repellency In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Adjuvants for Agrochemicals (ISAA2007), Columbus, USA.
Hulbert, L.C. (1988). Causes of Fire Effects in Tallgrass Prairie. Ecology, 69(1): 46–58. https://doi.org/10.2307/1943159.
Jhariya, M.K. & Raj, A. (2014). Effects of wildfires on flora, fauna and physico-chemical properties of soil-An overview. J. Appl. Nat. Sci., 6(2): 887–897. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v6i2.550.
Kasischke, E.S. & Bruhwiler, L.P. (2002). Emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane from boreal forest fires in 1998. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 107(D1): FFR2-1–FFR2-14. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000461.
Letey, J. (2001). Causes and consequences of fire-induced soil water repellency. Hydrol. Processes, 15(15): 2867–2875. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.378.
Loarie, S.R., Duffy, P.B., Hamilton, H., Asner, G.P., Field, C.B. & Ackerly, D.D. (2009). The velocity of climate change. Nature, 462(7276): 1052–1055. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08649.
Lyon, L.J., Telfer, E.S. & Schreiner, D.S. (2000b). Direct effects of fire and animal responses. In: Smith, J.K., ed. Wild land fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 1. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. pp. 17–23.
Mariod, A.A., Saeed Mirghani, M.E. & Hussein, I. (2017). Chapter 44 - Schistocerca gregaria (Desert Locust) and Locusta migratoria (Migratory Locust). Unconventional Oilseeds and Oil Sources. Academic Press. pp. 293-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809435-8.00044-5.
Mehrnejad, M.R. (2020). Arthropod pests of pistachio, their natural enemies and management. Plant Protect. Sci., 56: 231–260. https://doi.org/10.17221/63/2019-PPS.
Myers, R.L. (2006). Living with Fire - Sustaining Ecosystems & Livelihoods through Integrated Fire Management. The Nature Conservancy, Global Fire Initiative. Tallahassee, Florida, USA. 36 p.
Nasi, R., Meijaard, E., Applegate, G. & Moore, P. (2002). Forest fire and biological diversity. Unasylva, 53(209): 36-40.
Neary, D.G. & Leonard, J.M. (2020). Effects of Fire on Grassland Soils and Water: A Review. Grasses and Grassland Aspects. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.90747.
Nelson, A.D. & Chomitz, K.M. (2009). Protected area effectiveness in reducing tropical deforestation: a global analysis of the impact of protection status: e-book. (IEG Evaluation brief; Vol. 7). Washington: The World Bank.
Ott, S.R. (2018). Regressions Fit for Purpose: Models of Locust Phase State Must Not Conflate Morphology with Behavior. Front. Behav. Neurosci., 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00137.
Padmaja, P.G. (2016). Insect Pest Resistance in Sorghum. Biotic Stress Resistance in Millets. Academic Press. pp. 105-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-804549-7.00004-4.
Pener, M.P. & Simpson, S.J. (2009). Locust Phase Polyphenism: An Update. Advances in Insect Physiology. Academic Press. 36: 1-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2806(08)36001-9.
Reeder, C.J. & Jurgensen, M.F. (1979). Fire-induced water repellency in forest soils of upper Michigan. Can. J. For. Res., 9: 363–373. https://doi.org/10.1139/x79-062.
Simpson, S.J., Mccaffery, A.R. & Hägele, B.F. (1999). A behavioural analysis of phase change in the desert locust. Biol. Rev., 74(4): 461–480. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1999.tb00038.x.
Sintayehu, D.W. (2018). Impact of climate change on biodiversity and associated key ecosystem services in Africa: a systematic review. Ecosyst. Health Sustainability, 4(9): 225–239. https://doi.org/10.1080/20964129.2018.1530054.
Swengel, A.B. (2001). A literature review of insect responses to fire, compared to other conservation managements of open habitat. Biodivers. Conserv., 10(7): 1141-1169. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1016683807033.
Tan-Soo, J.-S., Adnan, N., Ahmad, I., Pattanayak, S.K. & Vincent, J.R. (2016). Econometric Evidence on Forest Ecosystem Services: Deforestation and Flooding in Malaysia. Environ. Resour. Econ., 63(1): 25–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-014-9834-4.
Triplehorn, C.A. & Johnson, N.F. (2005). Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects. 7th edition. Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
Saeed, K.T. (2008). Koya Regional Geography. Teeshk, Sulaimany.
Symmons, P.M. & Cressman, K. (2001). Desert Locust Guidelines. 1. Biology and Behaviour. 2nd ed. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Viswanathan, S., Eria, L., Diunugala, N., Johnson, J. & McClean, C. (2006). An analysis of effects of San Diego wildfire on ambient air quality. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc., 56(1): 56–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2006.10464439.
Wiedinmyer, C., Quayle, B., Geron, C., Belote, A., McKenzie, D., Zhang, X., O'Neill, S. & Wynne, K.K. (2006). Estimating emissions from fires in North America for air quality modeling. Estimating emissions from fires in North America for air quality modeling. Atmos. Environ., 40(19): 3419–3432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.02.010.
Xue, L., Li, Q. & Chen, H. (2014). Effects of a Wildfire on Selected Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Soil Properties in a Pinus massoniana Forest in South China. Forests, 5(12): 2947–2966. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5122947.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.