Thyroid Diseases with Vitamin D Deficiency in Erbil city


  • Aso Hemn Omar Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van-TURKEY.
  • Muhammed Sherwan Qadir Department of Pathological Analysis, Faculty of Science, Knowledge University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region –IRAQ.
  • Gulstan Mudhafar Mokhtar Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Koya, Kurdistan Region –IRAQ.
  • Bnar Mudhafar Mokhtar Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Koya, Kurdistan Region –IRAQ.


Vitamin D, Thyroid disease, FT3, FT4, TSH


Vitamin D is essential for the proper growth and development of a child and is associated with numerous public health issues. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and thyroid diseases. Vitamin D sufficiency is defined in terms of the serum level of the prohormone 25(OH)D which is 30 ng/mL. Vitamin D level less than of it is considered as vitamin D deficiency. A total of 100 subjects were included in the present study who visited the Central Laboratory in Erbil for health examination between the beginning of September to the beginning of December 2020. The findings of the present study show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (79%) among Erbil population. There was a negative correlation between Vitamin D serum levels and TSH levels (r = - 0.154) with a positive correlation between vitamin D serum levels and FT3 levels (r = 0.168) and FT4 levels (r = 0.122). The results showed that patients with vitamin D deficiency suffered from hypothyroidism. Additionally, the positive significant correlation between thyroid hormones with vitamin D and that negative significant correlation with TSH levels, suggested that low vitamin D levels are significantly associated with the severity of hypothyroidism which encourages the advisability of vitamin D supplementation.


Download data is not yet available.


Holick, M.F. & Chen, T.C. (2008). Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 87(4): 1080S–6S.

Naeem, Z. (2010). Vitamin d deficiency- an ignored epidemic. Int. J. Health Sci. (Qassim), 4(1): V–VI.

DeLuca, H.F. (2008). Evolution of our understanding of vitamin D. Nutr. Rev., 66(10 Suppl 2): S73–S87.

Holick, M.F., Binkley, N.C., Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., Gordon, C.M., Hanley, D.A., Heaney, R.P., Murad, M.H., Weaver, C.M. & Endocrine Society (2011). Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 96(7): 1911–1930.

Holick M.F. (2007). Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med., 357(3): 266–281.

Esposito, S., Leonardi, A., Lanciotti, L., Cofini, M., Muzi, G. & Penta, L. (2019). Vitamin D and growth hormone in children: a review of the current scientific knowledge. J. Transl. Med., 17(1): 1–18.

Prentice, A., Goldberg, G.R. & Schoenmakers, I. (2008). Vitamin D across the lifecycle: physiology and biomarkers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 88(2): 500S–506S.

Baeke, F., Takiishi, T., Korf, H., Gysemans, C. & Mathieu, C. (2010). Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol., 10(4): 482–496.

Beynon, M.E. & Pinneri, K. (2016). An Overview of the Thyroid Gland and Thyroid-Related Deaths for the Forensic Pathologist. Acad. Forensic Pathol., 6(2): 217–236.

Boelaert, K. & Franklyn, J.A. (2021). Thyroid hormone in health and disease. J. Endocrinol., 187(1): 1–15.

Kim, D. (2017). The Role of Vitamin D in Thyroid Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 18(9): 1949.

Chambers, E.S. & Hawrylowicz, C.M. (2011). The Impact of Vitamin D on Regulatory T Cells. Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep., 11(1): 29–36.

Ahi, S., Dehdar, M.R., & Hatami, N. (2020). Vitamin D deficiency in non-autoimmune hypothyroidism: a case-control study. BMC Endocr. Disord., 20(1): 1–6.

Hovsepian, S., Amini, M., Aminorroaya, A., Amini, P. & Iraj, B. (2011). Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Adult Population of Isfahan City, Iran. J. Health Popul. Nutr., 29(2): 149.

Sheriba, N.A., Elewa, A.A.A., Mahdy, M.M., El Din, A.M.B., Ibrahim, N.A., Marawan, D.A. & El Moneim, T.M. (2017). Effect of vitamin D3 in treating hyperthyroidism in patients with graves’ disease. Egypt. J. Intern. Med., 29(2): 64.

Talaei, A., Ghorbani, F. & Asemi, Z. (2018). The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Thyroid Function in Hypothyroid Patients: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab., 22(5): 584–588.

Bi, X., Tey, S.L., Leong, C., Quek, R. & Henry, C.J. (2016). Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Singapore: Its Implications to Cardiovascular Risk Factors. PLoS One, 11(1).

Mackawy, A.M., Al-Ayed, B.M. & Al-Rashidi, B. M. (2013). Vitamin D deficiency and its association with thyroid disease. Int. J. Health Sci. (Qassim), 7(3): 267–275.

Yasuda, T., Okamoto, Y., Hamada, N., Miyashita, K., Takahara, M., Sakamoto, F., Miyatsuka, T., Kitamura, T., Katakami, N., Kawamori, D., Otsuki, M., Matsuoka, T.A., Kaneto, H. & Shimomura, I. (2012). Serum vitamin D levels are decreased and associated with thyroid volume in female patients with newly onset Graves' disease. Endocrine, 42(3): 739–741.

Friedman, T.C. (2011). Vitamin D Deficiency and Thyroid Disease. Retrieved from

Kivity, S., Agmon-Levin, N., Zisappl, M., Shapira, Y., Nagy, E.V., Dankó, K., Szekanecz, Z., Langevitz, P. & Shoenfeld, Y. (2011). Vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Cell. Mol. Immunol., 8(3): 243–247.

Iqbal, A.A., Burgess, E.H., Gallina, D.L., Nanes, M.S. & Cook, C.B. (2003). Hypercalcemia in hyperthyroidism: patterns of serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels during management of thyrotoxicosis. Endocr Pract., 9(6): 517–521.



How to Cite

Omar, A., Qadir, M. S., Mokhtar, G. M., & Mokhtar, B. M. (2021). Thyroid Diseases with Vitamin D Deficiency in Erbil city. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology, 12(1), 10–13. Retrieved from