Integration of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Grape Vine (Vitis vinifera L.) in Nursery Stage
The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) association is being considered as the commonest Mycorrhizal type involved in grape community. Low population density of these useful fungi in vineyard soil suggests the need for manual inoculation of grapevine plantlets at the nursery stage. The influence of three commercial Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi strains (Glomus intraradious, G. mosseae, G. fasciculatus and a mixture of them) on growth and biochemical status of four grapevine varieties (Shahroodi, Asgari, Keshmeshi and Khalili) was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Rooted plantlets derived from hardwood cuttings were transplanted in pots containing leaf mold and sand (1:1) followed by inoculation with different fungal inoculums. Various physiological and biochemical parameters were measured at 30 days intervals. The percentage of root colonization was found to be slightly different amongst inoculated vines but it was found to be significantly different with non-inoculated, control plants. Most growth related parameters (vine length, shoot length and leaf area) were enhanced following Mycorrhization but root length and number of leaves were not significantly affected by any fungal intervention. Treated plants typically showed more obvious modifications in their biochemical status. The chlorophyll content (especially "b" and total), total root and shoot phenols were raised in treated plants. The chlorophyll "a" and total soluble sugars were not statistically different in inoculated and control plants. The overall results of the present study suggest that AM fungi can be manually applied, as an easy and economical approach during nursery production, to boost the physiological and biochemical status of the treated plants and production of high quality healthy plantlets.
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