Isolation and Purification of C-phycocyanin from Nostoc muscorum (Cyanophyceae and Cyanobacteria) Exhibits Antimalarial Activity In vitro
The phycobilin pigments are intensively fluorescent and water soluble. They are categorized into three types, such as pigments containing high, intermediate and low energies are phycoerythrins (phycoerythrocyanins), phycocyanins and allophycocyanins, respectively. Besides light harvesting, the phycobiliproteins have shown industrial and biomedical importance. Among them, C-phycocyanin (C-PC) has been considered to be the most preferred one. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antimalarial activity of C-PC isolated from a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium and Nostoc muscorum. C-PC was extracted and purified by acetone extraction and ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis followed by amicon filtration. It was isolated as a~124 kDa water soluble protein molecule. It showed antimalarial activity in vitro against chloroquine sensitive and resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Inhibitory concentrations at 50%, 90% and 95% were determined as 10.27±2.79, 53.53±6.26 and 73.78±6.92 µg/ml against the chloroquine-sensitive strains; 10.37±1.43, 56.99±11.07 and 72.79±8.59 µg/ml against chloroquine resistant of Plasmodium falciparum strains. C-PC was found to have antimalarial activity even at a concentration of 3.0µg/ml. The possible mechanism might be relied on the destruction of polymerization of haemozoin by binding of C-PC with ferriprotoporphyrin-IX at the water surface of the plasma membrane.
. Sharma, V.P. (2000). Status of drug resistance in malaria in India. In Multi drug resistance in emerging and re-emerging diseases. Ed. R.C. Mahajan, p. 191-202. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India.
. Ridley, R.G. (2002). Medical need, scientific opportunity and the drive for antimalarial drugs. Nature, 415: 686–693.
. Krogstad, D.J., Gluzman, I.Y., Kyle, D.E., Oduola, A.M., Martin, S.K., Milhous, W.K. & Schlesinger, P.H. (1987). Efflux of Chloroquine from Plasmodium falciparum: mechanism of Chloroquine resistance. Science, 238: 1283-1285.
. White, N.J., Nontprasert, A., Nosten, B., Pukrittayakame, S. & Vanijanonta, B. (1998). Assessment of the neurotoxicity of Parenteral Artemisinin derivatives in mice. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 59: 519-522.
. Chen, M.C., Mwasumbi, L.B. & Heinrich M. (1994). Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for antimalarial activity. J. Parasitic Disease, 56: 65-77.
. Simonsen, H.T., Nordskjold, J.B., Smitt, U.W., Nyman, U., Palpu, P., Joshi, P. & Varughese, G. (2001). In vitro screening of Indian medicinal plants for antiplasmodial activity. J. Ethnopharmacol., 74: 195–204.
. Viskari, P.J. & Colyer, C.L. (2003). Rapid extraction of phycobiliproteins from cultured cyanobacteria samples. Anal. Biochem., 319: 263–271.
. Santiago-Santos, M., Ponce-Noyola, T., Olvera-Ramý´rez, R., Ortega-Lo´pez, J. & Can˜izares-Villanueva R.O. (2004). Extraction and purification of phycocyanin from Calothrix sp. Process Biochemistry, 39: 2047–2052.
. Moreno, J., Rodriguez, H., Vargas M.A., Rivas, J. & Guerrero, M.G. (1995). Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria as source of phycobiliprotein pigments. Composition and growth performance of ten filamentous heterocystous strains. J. Appl. Phycol., 7: 17-23.
. Bermejo, R., Acie´n, F.G., Iba´n˜ez, M.J., Ferna´ndez, J.M., Molina, E. & Alvarez-Pez, J.M. (2003). Preparative purification of B-phycoerythrin from the microalga Porphyridium cruentum by expanded-bed adsorption chromatography. J. Chromatogr., 790: 317–325.
. Rippka, R., Deruelles, J., Waterbury, J.B., Herdman, M. & Stanier, R.Y. (1971). Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol., 85: 39-43.
. Ravindra, A., Mishra, S., Pawar, R. & Ghosh, P. (2005). Purification and characterization of C-phycocyanin from cyanobacterial species of marine and freshwater habitat. Protein Expr. Purif., 40: 248-255.
. Biswas, S. (2003). 8-Hydroxyquinoline inhibits the multiplication of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Annals Trop. Med. Parasitol., 97: 527-530.
. Hilditch, C.M., Balding, P., Kakins, R., Smith, A.J. & Rogers, L.J. (1991). C-phycocyanin from the cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica. J. App. Phycol., 3:345-349.
. Reis, A., Mendes, A., Lobo-Fernandes, H., Empis, J.A. & Novais, J.M. (1998). Production, extraction and purification of phycobiliproteins from Nostoc sp. Bioresource Technol., 66: 181–187.
. Abalde, J., Betancourt, L., Torres, E. & Cid, A. (1998). Purification and characterization of phycocyanin from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus Sp. IO9201. Plant Sci., 136: 109-120.
. Minkova, K.M., Tchernov, A.A., Tchorbadjieva M.I., Fournadjieva, S.T., Antova, R.E. & Busheva, M.C. (2003). Purification of C-phycocyanin from a Spirulina (Arthrospira) fusiformis. J. Biotechnol., 102: 55-59.
. Benedetti, S., Benvenutia, F., Pagliarania, S., Francoglia, S., Scogliob, S. & Canestraria, F. (2006). Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Life Sci., 75: 2353-2362.
. Singh, N.K., Parmar, V. & Madamwar, D. (2009). Optimization of medium components for increased production of C-phycocyanin from Phormidium ceylanicum and its purification by single step process. Bioresource Technol., 100: 1663-1669.
. Biswas, S. (2001). In-vitro antimalarial activity of azithromycin against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum. J. Postgrad. Med., 47: 240-243.
. Raynes, K. (1999). Bisquinoline antimalarials: their role in malaria therapy. International J. Parasitol., 29: 367-379.
. Egan, C.P. (2003). In vitro antiplasmodial activity of abietane and totarane diterpenes isolated from Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s claw). Planta Medica, 8: 720-724.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.