Testicular and Epididymal Toxicity of Carbaryl in Sprague-Dawley Strain Rats
Keywords:Carbaryl, 3-beta HSD, 17-beta HSD, Testosterone, Testis, Epididymis, Rat
In the past decade, the use of carbamate has become exceedingly popular as that of the organophosphates. There is a growing concern that the exposure to these compounds is a chronic hazard to man and animals. The present study was conducted to investigate the testicular and epididymal toxicity of carbaryl on rats. Male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were administered orally with carbaryl dissolved in olive oil at 50 - 150mg doses/Kg body weight/day for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, rats were weighed and killed. Body weights remained unchanged at the end of the treatment. The weights of testis and epididymis decreased significantly after the treatment along with significant reductions in epididymal sperm count, viability and sperm motility. Activities of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase showed a significant decrease along with the reduction in the serum pituitary LH, FSH and testosterone. Carbaryl significantly decreased the activities of epididymal marker enzymes, phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase. These findings demonstrate the adverse effect of carbaryl on testicular steroidogenesis and epididymal functions contributing to the decline in the sperm counts of rats.
WHO (1994). Environmental Health Criteria No. 153: Carbaryl. WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety. World Health Organization, Geneva. pp. 358.
Wyrobek, A.J., Watchmaker, G., Gordon, L., Wong, K., Moore, D. & Whorton, D. (1981). Sperm shape abnormalities in carbaryl-exposed employees. Environ. Health Perspect., 40: 255–265. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8140255.
Carlsen, E., Giwercman, A., Keiding, N. & Skakkebaek, N.E. (1992). Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during past 50 years. BMJ, 305: 609–613. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.305.6854.609.
DeGroot, L.J. (1995). Endocrinology. 3rd ed., W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
Sharpe, R.M. & Skakkebaek, N.E. (1993). Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet, 341: 1392–1395. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(93)90953-e.
Gray, L.E., Jr, Ostby, J., Ferrell, J., Sigmon, R., Cooper, R., Linder, R., Rehnberg, G., Goldman, J. & Laskey, J. (1989). Correlation of sperm and endocrine measures with reproductive success in rodents. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res., 302: 193–209; Discussion 206-199.
WHO (1999). WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm-Cervical Mucus Interaction. 4th Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 138.
Linder, R.E., Strader, L.F. & McElroy, W.K. (1986). Measurement of epididymal sperm motility as a test variable in the rat. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 36(3): 317–324. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01623514.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. & Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193(1): 265–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(19)52451-6.
Landt, M. & Butler, L.G. (1978). 5'-Nucleotide phosphodiesterase: isolation of covalently bound 5'-adenosine monophosphate, an intermediate in the catalytic mechanism. Biochemistry, 17(20): 4130–4135. https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00613a004.
Yang, J.K. & Epstein, W. (1983). Purification and characterization of adenylate cyclase from Escherichia coli K12. J. Biol. Chem., 258(6): 3750–3758. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(18)32728-5.
Bergmeyer, H.U. (1974). β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. In: Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.), Methods of enzymatic analysis, Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York. pp. 447–489.
Pant, N., Srivastava, S.C., Prasad, A.K., Shankar, R. & Srivastava, S.P. (1995). Effects of carbaryl on the rat's male reproductive system. Vet. Hum. Toxicol., 37(5): 421–425.
Pant, N., Shankar, R. & Srivastava, S.P. (1996). Spermatotoxic effects of carbaryl in rats. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 15(9): 736–738. https://doi.org/10.1177/096032719601500903.
Hoskins, D.D. & Casillas, E.R. (1975). Hormones, second messengers and the mammalian spermatozoon. In: Thomas, J.A. & Singhal, R.L. (Eds), Molecular Mechanisms of Gonadal Hormone Action. Advances in Sex Hormone Research, Vol. I, University Park Press, Baltimore. pp. 283-324.
Haider, S.G. & Servos, G. (1998). Ultracytochemistry of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in Leydig cell precursors and vascular endothelial cells of the postnatal rat testis. Anat. Embryol., 198(2): 101–110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004290050168.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.