Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology 2019-07-06T18:31:11+00:00 Pradeep Kumar Open Journal Systems Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology is a UGC Approved, Open access, Peer-reviewed, Biological Science Journal, published quarterly (January, April, July and October) by the Society of Open Science. Description of Reproductive System of Indian Water Scorpion, Laccotrephes maculatus Fabr. (Hemiptera, Heteroptera: Nepidae) 2019-07-06T18:31:11+00:00 Babita Khandelwal Y. C. Gupta Kanhiya Mahour <p>Water scorpion, <em>Laccotrephes maculatus</em> Fabr. is unisexual and exhibits sexual dimorphism. The males are relatively smaller with conspicuous connexival spine and possess distinct external genitalia. The male reproductive organs include a pair of testis, a pair of vasa deferentia, a pair of vesicula seminalis, two pairs of accessory glands and unpaired median ductus ejaculatorious. The female reproductive organs possess a pair of ovaries, a pair of lateral oviducts, a common oviductus communis, a vagina and the spermatotheca.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Copper (Sulfate, Acetate and Nano) in ovo injection on Hatching Traits and some Physiological Parameters of Newly-hatched Broiler Chicks 2019-07-05T18:29:48+00:00 A. R. Arafat H. A. Hassan K. Y. Farroh S. S. Elnesr I. EL-wardany M. S. Bahnas <p>This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different sources of copper (sulfate, acetate and nano) <em>in ovo</em> injection at 10 days of embryogenesis period on hatching traits and some physiological parameters of newly-hatched broiler chicks. A total number of 462 fertile eggs were used (with an average weight of 66.24±0.23g in 7 groups, each group containing 66 fertile eggs in three replicate. The experimental design was as follows the group 1 as control, while the groups 2, 3 and 4 injected with 0.1ml deionized water containing 8μg/egg of Cu sulfate, Cu acetate and nano Cu, respectively, and the groups 5, 6 and 7 injected with 0.1ml deionized water containing 16μg/egg of Cu sulfate, Cu acetate and nano Cu, respectively. After hatching eight one-day chicks around the average of each group were used in this study and the results as follows, different sources of Cu <em>in ovo </em>injection at 10 days of incubation by two levels (8 and 16μg/egg) did not affect hatching traits except elevation&nbsp; chick weight and chick weight %, did not affect yolk sac %, relative weight of organs (liver, gizzard, heart and bursa) of newly hatched chicks, did not affect hematological parameters and some plasma constituents, levels of 16µg/egg Cu led to increasing plasma Alb compared to the levels of 8µg/egg Cu and control, Cu sources at 8 or 16µg/egg decreased the values of AST enzyme.</p> <p>From the results of this study, it can be concluded that using Cu sources <em>in ovo</em> injection at 10 days of incubation up to the level of 16μg/egg, did not cause harmful effect but caused best results in chick weight and chick weight %.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Molecular Markers in determining Phylogenetic relationship in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) Var. Co(Te)7 2019-07-05T18:29:48+00:00 I. Anittha L. Mullainathan <p>The degree of polymorphism in seven different mutants were assessed along with untreated population, control in <em>Setaria italica</em> var. Co(Te)7. The mutants identified in M<sub>2</sub> generation were selected for RAPD analysis to examine the genetic variation between them. The mutant like multiple branched panicle, long Panicle, tall plant, anthocyanin pigmentation in panicle, thumb branched panicle, bold seed, tiller were chosen to compare the banding pattern and distinguishing to evaluate their phylogenetic relationship. The primers chosen for their amplification were OPC11, OPA05, OPA08 and OPA13. All the mutants showed the polymorphism depicting genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship in the foxtail millet var. Co(Te)7. Due to the exclusive design of genetic background, therapeutic potential, nutritional benefits and the traits of agronomic values hike the need for cultivation methodology in Co(Te)7 variety in foxtail millet. The dendrogram constructed based on UPGMA clustering method revealed the diverse genotype between the essential mutants utilized for increased crop improvement program.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bioinformatics, Identification and Cloning of β-galactosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum 2019-07-05T18:29:47+00:00 Saifadin Khder Mustafa <p><em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em>&nbsp;is a lactic acid bacterium, mostly found in fruits and vegetables. It has been used in a variety of food fermentations. It is reported that strains from this species have probiotic activity. In this study, pUC19 was chosen as a vector to clone β-galactosidase gene. To clone this gene we used <em>Eco</em>RI and <em>Kpn</em>I restriction enzymes that give a DNA fragment of 5000 bp in length which contains β-galactosidase gene. The same endonuclease enzymes were used to cut the vector (pUC19). To know the length of isolated DNA fragment as well as digested pUC19, agarose gel electrophoresis was used along with Lambda HindIII and Hyperladder I respectively. QIAGEN kit was used to extract DNA fragments from the agarose gel. Then it utilised for ligation in further processes. Furthermore, the DNA fragments were transformed into host cells (<em>E. coli</em>) and they were spread on LB agar plates containing X-gal and IPTG to confirm the presence of inserted DNA.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relationship between pattern of fingerprints and blood groups 2019-07-05T18:29:46+00:00 Harem Othman Smail Dlnya Ahmed Wahab Zhino Yahia Abdullah <p>Dactylography or the fingerprint system relies on the study of stratum ridges and their configurations [Dermatoglyphics (Derma = skin + Glyph = carving)] in the fingers, palms and soles. Estimates that probably there are chances of two people with identical finger impressions are about one in sixty four thousand million. Heredity and environment arbitrate in combination effects the pattern of ridges.</p> <p>We&nbsp;have&nbsp;conducted&nbsp;a&nbsp;study with 450 individuals among which 224 were male and 226 were female subjects, having different ABO blood groups and belongs to different age groups. This study was carried out in different faculties of Koya University. All the 10 fingerprint patterns were divided into Loops, Whorls and Arches. The fingerprints were taken with the help of stamp pad imprinting the finger ridges over A4 size white papers.</p> <p>The general distribution of the pattern of fingerprint showed high frequency (49.62%) of loops, whereas whorls were moderate (42.48%) and arches were least (7.88%) in frequency. Almost same order was noticed in both Rh-positive and Rh-negative individuals or A, B, AB and O blood groups. Loops are dominated in all the blood groups of both Rh-positive and Rh-negative individuals.</p> <p>The aim was to study the pattern of fingerprints on all the fingers of both hands and to study the association between fingerprints and blood groups among university students in different faculties of the Koya university with statistical analysis. The study suggests an association between fingerprint pattern and blood group A, B and AB, however, there is no association found between fingerprints and blood group O based on statistical analysis of chi-square test when results combined between both genders. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprints is related to individual digits.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sublethal Toxicity of Zinc Chloride on Antioxidant Enzyme activity of Catla catla (Hamilton) 2019-07-05T18:29:45+00:00 K. H. Mariyam K. P. Greeshma K. A. Deepthi E. Pushpalatha <p>Fishes are extensively used for the assessment of the health of the aquatic ecosystem as their enzymes serve as pollution biomarkers. Heavy metals are one of the major pollutants discharged to the aquatic ecosystem as industrial effluents. The present study determined the alteration in enzyme activities in different tissue of <em>Catla catla</em> exposed to sublethal concentrations of zinc chloride. <em>Catla catla</em> were exposed to different concentration of zinc chloride and control were maintained without the zinc chloride. After 96 hour exposure, brain and muscle tissue from both control and experimental group were selected for enzyme assay. The biochemical studies show that acetylcholinesterase and catalase activity in both brain and muscle tissue were reduced after exposure, whereas glutathione S-transferase activity in both tissues were increased. Heavy metal pollution causes detrimental effects on fishes and constitutes potential risks for human health through consumption of contaminated fishes.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biochemical effects of Organophosphorus pesticide, Quinalphos on freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) 2019-07-05T18:29:44+00:00 K. P. Greeshma K. H. Mariyam Laya Paul E. Pushpalatha <p>Quinalphos is a synthetic organophosphorus broad-spectrum insecticide, widely used to control insect pests in agriculture. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the biochemical effect of quinalphos on different tissues like liver and brain of the edible freshwater fish <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> (L). The <em>O. niloticus</em> were exposed to sublethal concentrations of quinalphos for two different periods of time (1 day and 5 days). From the result, the protein content and acetylcholinesterase enzyme in the tested tissues of <em>O. niloticus</em> was found to decline with increasing exposure periods of quinalphos. Activity of antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase and catalase shows a significant change in their level compared to the control. The present study suggests that quinalphos in sublethal dose altered antioxidant balance of the fish which cause severe oxidative stress. Therefore, the use of quinalphos in the agriculture may be a threat to aquatic population and also other organisms including human beings via food chain.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##