Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology 2019-01-15T13:57:49+00:00 Pradeep Kumar Open Journal Systems Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology is a UGC Approved, Open access, Peer-reviewed, Biological Science Journal, published quarterly (January, April, July and October) by the Society of Open Science. Conventional and molecular differentiation between capsular types of Pasteurella multocida isolated from various animal hosts 2019-01-15T06:01:14+00:00 Ayaat Teleb Gamal Mohamedin Hassan Ahmed Yaseein Zaki El Fiky <p>In this study, ten strains of <em>P. multocida</em> isolated from chicken, cattle, buffalo and sheep had a clinical manifestation of pneumonia were identified by species-specific PCR (PM-PCR) and 460bp products were obtained. Capsular typing of <em>P. multocida</em> is useful for epidemiological evidence and has been assessed by conventional and genotyping assays. According to the results, only one out of the ten strains (10%) which isolated from chicken was detected as capsular type D based on acriflavine test and did not detect the capsular type A for all the ten strains (0%) by using hyaluronidase test. PCR was applied to identify the capsular types using specific primers for each type of <em>P. multocida</em>. The findings of this study showed that a uniform amplicon size was corresponding to 657bp, 851bp and 510bp indicating that it belongs to capsular type D, type F and type E, respectively. So, the ten strains were identified to a one strain isolated from chicken as a type D (10%), one strain of which isolated from cattle as a type F (10%) and eight strains of which isolated from sheep, cattle, buffalo and chicken as a type E (80%). Likewise, the data of multiplex PCR showed that capsular type D, one strain; capsular type F, one strain and capsular type E, eight strains. Thus, the multiplex PCR can be used as a simple, sensitive, rapid, reliable technique for capsular typing identification of <em>P. multocida</em>. We concluded that the <em>P. multocida</em> serogroup E is common in Egypt and has a wide host range.</p> 2019-01-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antimicrobial effect of Chitosan and Nano-Chitosan against some Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms 2019-01-15T06:01:12+00:00 Warda M. Abdeltwab Yasser F. Abdelaliem Wedad A. Metry Mahmoud Eldeghedy <p>An experiment was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial effect of chitosan and nano-chitosan. Two Gram-negative, three Gram-positive bacteria and three fungal strains were used as test microorganisms. The obtained results indicated that 88% of nano-chitosan particle size was in the range of 93.76nm and 12% in 405nm. Nano-chitosan showed maximum antibacterial activity against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>L. monocytogenes</em> with inhibition zone of 30mm (23µg/ml concentration) and the lowest 23mm with <em>E. coli</em> at the same concentration. Other tested bacteria were affected in different degrees. The MIC and MLC ranged between 64 to 256 and 128 to 512µg/ml, respectively. The highest effect was against <em>S. aureus</em> at 23.04µg/ml. Chitosan solution was found to have less antifungal activity against <em>C. albicans</em> when compared to nano-chitosan. MIC and MLC for chitosan and nano-chitosan were recorded at 64 and 128µg/ml with chitosan and 23.04 and 46.08µg/ml with nano-chitosan. The highest nano-chitosan activity was recorded against <em>S. cerevisiae</em>, 7 and 16µg/ml for MIC and MLC, respectively. Nano-chitosan at concentrations 3.0 and 4.5µg/ml were the most effective to retard fungal activity.</p> 2019-01-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of biological Control potential for different Trichoderma strains against Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne javanica 2019-01-15T06:01:11+00:00 Nada F. Hemeda M. A. El Deeb <p>Twenty strains of four&nbsp;<em>Trichoderma</em>&nbsp;species (<em>Trichoderma harzianum,&nbsp;Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma koningii</em> and <em>Trichoderma asperellum</em>) were evaluated for its potential to control the root-knot nematode <em>Meloidogyne javanica</em>. Culture filtrates from <em>Trichoderma </em>strains were tested in 24-well tissue culture plates for effects on <em>Meloidogyne javanica</em>. Chitwood egg hatch and mobility of hatched second-stage juveniles (J2) were evaluated, all the twenty <em>Trichoderma</em> strains showed the ability to colonize <em>M. javanica</em> separated eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) in sterile <em>in vitro</em> assays. <em>T. asperellum</em> possess the strongest egg-parasitic ability and very effective against 2nd stage larvae of <em>M. javanica</em>.</p> <p>In this investigation, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was used to estimate the genetic variations between four strains of <em>Trichoderma asperellum</em> (KC898190, KC898191, KC898192 and KC898193) which were previously isolated from the rhizospheres of different plants growing in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt as a new strain of<em> T. asperellum</em> in Egypt<strong>. </strong>RAPD assay using 6 random primers identified<em> T. asperellum </em>strains with 5 specific unique markers.</p> 2019-01-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sugar Mill Effluent Induced Histological Changes in Heart of Channa punctatus 2019-01-15T13:06:00+00:00 Suman Prakash Ajay Capoor <p>Sugar mill effluents are not so toxic like pesticides, but they contain many organic and inorganic reactive compounds which can affect the life of the organisms. These reactive compounds accumulate and retard physiological activities in human beings also. Histological biomarkers can be indicators of the effects on organisms of various anthropogenic pollutants on organisms and are a reflection of the overall health of the entire population of that ecosystem. The alterations in cells and tissues of fish are recurrently used biomarkers in many studies as such changes occur in all the invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting aquatic basins. Histological biomarkers embody tissue lesions arising as a result of previous or current exposure of the organism to one or more toxins. In other words, it can be stated that these compounds act as a slow poison. Keeping these points in view, the effect of sugar mill effluent is observed on histology of heart of freshwater fish <em>Channa punctatus</em>.</p> 2019-01-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Statistical Analysis of some Hydrobiological Parameters in Upstream and Downstream of River Asan 2019-01-15T13:57:49+00:00 A. K. Deshpande D. K. Sharma Laxmi Sharma <p>Today world is facing a number of challenges affecting the availability, accessibility, use and sustainability of its freshwater resources. Water is the most vital resource for living beings because there is no life without water as cellular activities never occur. Water is essential for the socio-economic development of human beings. Industrialization, urbanization, population explosion and green revolution have deteriorated the various sources of water. Keeping these points in mind, this study is designed to comparatively analyze the water quality of river Asan at upstream and downstream sites.</p> 2019-01-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##