Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology is a UGC Approved, Open access, Peer-reviewed, Biological Science Journal, published quarterly (January, April, July and October) by the Society of Open Science. Society of Open Science en-US Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology 0976-7614 Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence at a tertiary care hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia <p>Human toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan infection with a wide-ranging prevalence. The prevalence of <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> infection is variable and depends on different eco-epidemiological factors. Both, active serological screenings and retrospective analytical methods are usually used for the investigation of toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in different populations. We conducted a two-year retrospective database search at a major tertiary care hospital to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and its distribution in relation to gender and age among Makkah's population. In total, 806 females and 118 males with 33.1±9.1 years, mean age (±SD) were tested for anti-<em>T. gondii </em>antibodies in the last two years. Laboratory results revealed 229 seropositive subjects indicating 24.8% overall toxoplasmosis seroprevalence. Infection rate was significantly higher among male subjects (33.9%) than female subjects (23.4%). Seroprevalence increased considerably with age; from 9.7% in children less than 10 years old to 37.4% and 40.5% among adults between 40 and 49 and over 50 years, respectively. Only two anti-<em>T</em><em>. gondii</em> IgM seropositive cases were recorded along this period, indicating possible active infection. In conclusion, overall <em>T. gondii</em> seropositivity rate is relatively low among Makkah's population, but moderate in adult males. Further investigations are required to determine the risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis transmission in the area. Also, adequate screening for anti-<em>T. gondii</em> specific antibodies are recommended, especially for immunocompromised patients and during pregnancy, in order to minimize prospective complications.</p> Dina A. Zaglool Mohammed El-Bali Hani S. Faidah Saeed A. Al-Harthi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 8 2 36 40 Changes in total protein in Liver and Kidney of freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch.) after intoxication of Carbaryl <p>Pesticides are one group of toxic compounds linked to human use that have a profound effect on aquatic fauna. Fish may be good indicators of contamination by pollutants because their biochemical responses are quite similar to found in mammals. Studies on toxic effects of carbaryl (a carbamate pesticide) on liver and kidney of freshwater fish <em>Channa punctatus</em> have been made. The LC<sub>50</sub> value of carbaryl was calculated 10.05mg/l for various time periods 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. The study was conducted to investigate the total protein changes in the liver and kidney of freshwater fish, <em>Channa punctatus</em> exposed to different sub-lethal concentrations of pesticide carbaryl for a period of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and up to 90 days. Carbaryl intoxication in <em>Channa punctatus</em> caused significant decrease in total protein in liver and kidney as compared to control. The reasons for such changes have been discussed in this paper.</p> Ashvani Kumar Surendra Singh H. N. Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 8 2 41 43 Description of copulatory complex in relation to taxonomy in Gerridae <p>The family Gerridae is represented in India by 67 species (of which 4 are undescribed species and only known by the nymphs) belonging to 20 genera and representing 7 subfamilies (10 new species are described in the present work). The subfamily Charmatometrinae is not represented in India. The Gerrids or water striders are well known aquatic insects and they are the most interesting and fascinating among all insects of the tropics and subtropics. They skate, skip, glide or literally walk upon the surface of the water. The relation of copulatory complex with taxonomy is described in this research article.</p> Jagvir Singh Y. C. Gupta H. N. Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 8 2 44 49 Impact of Salt stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cicer arietinum L. <p>Cereals are used as an important food of Indian diet. They are an important source of carbohydrates and proteins, so they are essential to a predominant diet. Chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum</em> L.) is one of the important crops of India, mainly grown for their seeds which contain 20.6% protein, 2.2% fat and 61.2% carbohydrate, ranking next to wheat and barley both in acreage and in the production of grain. The major portion of crop production is consumed by the people in many forms like Dal, Besan, Crushed or whole grain, boiled or roasted gram or in sweet preparation. It is also used as a protein-rich diet for horses, and other cattle in the forms of soaked grain. Keeping the above views several <em>Cicer</em> varieties will be screened for their salt tolerance behaviour. Salt tolerant and salt susceptible variety will be selected for further comparative studies to expect that the findings of the present investigation would not only help with a better understanding of the mechanism of salt tolerant behaviour of <em>Cicer</em> at the physiological and biochemical levels and also suggest possibilities of selecting a variety suitable for salt stress condition.</p> Navneet Kumar D. K. Singh H. N. Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 8 2 50 56