Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology <p>Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology (eISSN: 0976-7614) is continuned by Advances in BioScience (eISSN: 2583-0058).</p> en-US <p>This is an open access article distributed under the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> (Pradeep K. Singh) (Dr. Kanhiya Mahour) Tue, 19 Apr 2022 08:46:02 +0000 OJS 60 Identification and Role of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Aerobic Bacteria in the Management of Refractory Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media – A Tertiary Hospital-based Retrospective Study <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study identifies aerobic bacteria that cause refractory chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and compares the treatment outcomes of patients treated with antibiotic sensitivity testing (AST) directed antibiotics against those treated with empirical antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This retrospective study was conducted at the departments of ENT and Microbiology, AIIMS, Patna. Data were collected from clinical and microbiological laboratory records of patients with complaints of persistent ear discharge from September 2018 to February 2020. Ear discharge samples were cultured and AST data from all patients were examined. Antibiotics were administered to those patients diagnosed with refractory CSOM based on their AST report. Patients were followed up, and their treatment responses were assessed and recorded. Data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics software Version 20.0. Descriptive analysis was performed and Pearson Chi-square tests were applied and <em>p</em>-values were determined to draw relevant conclusions.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 90 patients were examined, of which 70 showed significant bacterial growth and were prescribed AST-directed antibiotics. The remaining 20 patients with insignificant growth were treated empirically. Common microorganisms isolated in our study were <em>P. aeruginosa</em> and <em>S. aureus</em>. Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates were highly resistant to commonly used fluoroquinolones. Among intravenous (IV) formulations, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam had the highest sensitivity (&gt;80%) against Gram-negative isolates. There was a statistically significant (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) difference in cure rates between patients treated with AST-directed antibiotics (n = 54; 77.1%) and empirical therapy (n = 9; 45%). Route of antibiotic administration (oral versus IV) had no statistically significant effect on treatment outcomes (<em>p </em>&gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In the management of refractory CSOM, AST-directed antibiotic therapy is more effective than empirical treatment. Oral and IV antibiotics were equally effective when combined with aural toileting and ototopical antibiotics. Therefore, when treating such cases, AST-directed antibiotics should always be used to prevent widespread antibiotic resistance caused by injudicious antibiotic use.</p> Swati Suneha, Suprakash Das, Kranti Bhavana Copyright (c) 2021 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article. Thu, 02 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical utility of serum holotranscobalamin in the assessment of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with Hypothyroidism <p>Thyroid disorder is the second most frequently encountered endocrinological condition after diabetes mellitus. When vitamin B<sub>12</sub> deficiency coexists with hypothyroidism, neurological symptoms and signs are more pronounced. Holotranscobalamin (Active B<sub>12</sub>) may be a more sensitive marker in the early diagnosis of Vitamin B<sub>12</sub> deficiency than total B<sub>12</sub>. The study aimed to evaluate the serum levels of active B<sub>12</sub> in patients with clinical hypothyroidism and to correlate active B<sub>12</sub> and thyroid profiles. The case-control study was carried out in a tertiary hospital on 80 study subjects, comprising of 40 confirmed hypothyroidism patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Serum thyroid profile and active B<sub>12</sub> assays were performed by Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay. Statistical methods such as independent t-test and Pearson’s correlation were used to compare and correlate quantitative data. A significant percentage (90%) of hypothyroid patients had vitamin B<sub>12</sub> deficiency, with a mean value of 17.39 ± 5.73 pmol/L. Active B<sub>12</sub> showed a positive correlation with T<sub>3</sub> (r = 0.818; <em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) and T<sub>4</sub> (r = 0.851; <em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) and a negative correlation with TSH (r = -0.930;<em> P</em> &lt; 0.001). Vitamin B<sub>12</sub> deficiency was found in patients with hypothyroidism. This vitamin B<sub>12</sub> deficiency may be caused by inadequate malabsorption, as seen in hypothyroidism. HoloTC (Active B<sub>12</sub>) may be a promising marker for early detection and management of B<sub>12</sub> deficiency, which may be beneficial in preventing irreversible neurological damage at an early stage.</p> Reshma Shridhar, Janice DSa, Prathima Mangalore Balakrishna, Vishnu Nair, Kiran Kumar, Sushith, Suriyan Nair Copyright (c) 2021 The author(s) retains the copyright of this article. Thu, 02 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000