Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology is a UGC Approved, Open access, Peer-reviewed, Biological Science Journal, published quarterly (January, April, July and October) by the Society of Open Science. en-US editor.jalrb@gmail.com (Pradeep Kumar) managingeditor.jalrb@gmail.com (Dr Kanhiya Mahour) Thu, 01 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria that Cause External Ocular Infections in Sabha City Libya https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/233 <p>The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of the specific bacterial pathogens causing ocular infections in patients attending Sabha Eye Clinics. A total of 120 samples were collected using a sterile cotton swab from patients with conjunctivitis (aged between 1 to more than 60 years) attending different Eye Clinics in Sabha city (under the supervision of ophthalmologists). All samples were examined by Gram stain, culture on blood agar, mannitol salt agar and MacConkey agar. Different biochemical tests were studied. Results revealed that the species of bacteria isolated were: <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(40%), Coagulase-negative <em>Staphylococci </em>(20%), <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>species (10%), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>(22%) and <em>E. coli </em>8%.</p> Abdelkader Alsanousi G. Elzen, Alsadig Mohammed Abdalla ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/233 Thu, 01 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Identification and determination of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria Isolated from Septic Wounds https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/234 <p>Wound infection is a global cause of morbidity and mortality across all wound types. Therefore, efficient diagnosis and treatment of wound infection are essential. This study was carried out to identify the pathogenic bacteria in infected wounds of the patient’s attending Sebha city hospitals (Libya) and to determine their resistance profile to the most common antibiotics used in therapy. A total of sixty wound swab specimens were collected and cultured, of which 39 samples showed bacterial growth. Three different species of bacteria were isolated. <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> 21 (53.9%) were the most common organisms followed by <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>10 (25.6%)<em> and Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> 8 (20.5%). The antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolate was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results showed that 90.5% of the<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolates were resistant to vancomycin, 61.9% to tetracycline, 57.1% to amoxicillin, 52.4 % to methicillin, 42.9 to erythromycin and 23.8% to streptomycin. 87.5% of the <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis </em>isolates were resistant to vancomycin, 75% to methicillin, 62.5% to tetracycline, 50% to streptomycin 37.5% to amoxicillin, and erythromycin. All the <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and highly resistant 90-100% to other antibiotics tested Amoxicillin, Nalidixic acid, Streptomycin, and Tetracycline. The high rate of multiple antibiotic resistance was observed in all bacterial species recovered.</p> Alsadig Mohammed Abdalla, Abdelkader Alsanousi G. Elzen, Ahmed Alshahed, Gurfa Abu Azoom Sh. Az., Aziza Heeba M.O., Gaeidaa A. Mohammed M.A., Habsa Yunis Ab. K., Nisreen Mohammed Ab ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/234 Thu, 01 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Screening of Aeromonads as associated pathogens from Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial infections in the aquaculture industry, West Bengal, India https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/235 <p>The disease termed as ‘Ulcerative disease’ or ‘Erythematous disease’ is found in fishes and fish handlers and is caused by a group of waterborne <em>Mycobacterium </em>spp. called non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The wounds are frequently invaded by secondary pathogens like <em>Aeromonas </em>spp. which is ubiquitous in nature. NTMs are free-living bacterium inhabiting water bodies, causing skin lesions in fish and fish handlers. The secondary invaders are natural inhabitants and are found in excess due to anthropogenic pollution in aquatic environments affecting the fishes and human subjects as low-level latent infectants in wounds caused by NTM. This study highlights the various aspects mycobacteriosis followed by secondary infection and hemorrhagic septicemia caused by <em>Aeromonas </em>spp. in the state of West Bengal (WB), India. NTM and <em>Aeromonas </em>spp. samples were examined from different districts of WB. In the case of Fish handlers, NTM infection as well as <em>Aeromonas </em>spp. infected wounds were highly significant (correlation coefficient (ρ) 0.859, p&lt;0.01). Ulcerative fishes predominant with NTMs were significantly higher in the total samples studied (correlation coefficient 0.718, p&lt;0.01) than the fishes infected with both <em>Aeromonas </em>spp. and NTM (ρ 0.188, p&lt; 0.5). Systematic reporting of mycobacteriosis and associated pathogens studied here will help to improvise the drug regimes used in culture-based fisheries systems.</p> Tirthankar Saha, Parijat Das, Tapti Sengupta, Asesh Banerjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/235 Thu, 01 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Eosinophiluria in relation to Pyelonephritis in Women https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/236 <p>In the present study of outpatient settings, pyelonephritis was diagnosed by the history and physical examination and supported by urinalysis results. After a clinco-pathological confirmation of pyelonephritis in 100 female patients in the age group between 18-55 years were selected. The urine samples were subjected for routine urine analysis and urine sediment was stained with Wright-Giemsa stain. A total of 13% of these patients had eosinophils in urine. Eosinophiluria is defined as the presence of more than 1% eosinophils in urinary sediment under the microscope. Eosinophiluria proved to be good predictors of pyelonephritis, however, it is not specific. Positive test for pyuria of moderate to severe were seen in all (100%) of the cases. Microscopic hematuria was seen in 18% cases. We have found that Wright-Giemsa stain results show consistent results and eosinophils were more easily recognized. Demographic data collected were age, weight, gravidity, and parity. The gestational age of diagnosis was recorded.</p> Pritam Singh Ajmani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/236 Thu, 01 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Foliar Epidermal Studies of Twelve species in the Family Cyperaceae https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/239 <p>The study investigated the leaf foliar epidermal characters of twelve species in the family Cyperaceae. This was with a view to finding additional characters of diagnostic or taxonomic importance. The epidermal peels were obtained by standard methods. The twelve species studied were <em>Cyperus dilatatus </em>Schum. &amp; Thonn.;<em> Cyperus difformis</em> Linn.; <em>Cyperus haspan </em>Linn.; <em>Cyperus distans</em> Linn. (F.) Retz.; <em>Cyperus imbricatus </em>Linn.; <em>Cyperus compressus</em> Linn.;<em> Kyllinga erecta </em>Schumacher.; <em>Kyllinga pumila </em>Michx.;<em> Kyllinga nemoralis</em> (Forst.) Dandy ex Hutch.; <em>Mariscus alternifolius </em>Vahl.; <em>Mariscus flabelliformis </em>Kunth.; <em>Rhynchospora corymbosa </em>(Linn.) Britton.</p> <p>Foliar epidermal peels were obtained by standard methods. Characters that were taxonomically important in delimiting the twelve species include presence or absence of prickle hair, trichomes, idioblasts, prismatic crystals and contiguous stomata on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces and <em>Rhynchospora corymbosa </em>was distinctly separated from the other species studied because it was the only hypostomatic species, while the others were amphistomatic, it was the only species with 1-5 rows of stomata per band and it had the highest stomata number. The distinct foliar epidermal separation of<em> R. corymbosa </em>validated its placement in the tribe Schoeneae with the other species studied in the tribe Cypereae.</p> <p><em>C. distans</em> was unique in having non–glandular, tripod-shaped, T–shaped, tricellular and three-arm shaped trichomes on the abaxial epidermal surface. The presence of prismatic crystals was also unique on the adaxial surface of <em>C. distans </em>and <em>C. imbricatus</em>. Big sized circular papillae on the intercoastal zone of<em> C. haspan</em> delimited it from all the other species studied. Out of the three <em>Kyllinga </em>species studied, idioblast was found on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces of <em>K. erecta </em>and <em>K.</em> <em>pumila </em>but absent in <em>K. nemoralis</em>.</p> E. T. Odedeji, O. Adedeji ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/239 Thu, 01 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Pollen Morphology of Some Species in the Family Solanaceae https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/240 <p>The study investigates the significance of pollen morphology in the systematics of some species in the family Solanaceae. Pollen grains from anthers of <em>Solanum gilo</em> Linn., <em>Solanum macrocarpon</em> Linn., <em>Capsicum frutescens</em> Linn.,<em> Capsicum chinense</em> Jacq., <em>Physalis angulata</em> Linn., <em>Solanum pimpinellifolium</em> (L.) Mill., <em>Datura metel</em> Linn., <em>Solanum indicum</em> Linn., <em>Solanum torvum</em> Sw., <em>Nicotiana tabacum</em> Linn. were collected and acetolysed and studied according to standard methods. The pollen grains of the species of the family Solanaceae studied looked similar with some differences. Acolpate pollen grains were observed in <em>Capsicum frutescens</em>, <em>Datura metel</em>, <em>Nicotiana tabacum</em>, and <em>Solanum gilo</em> while monocolpate was observed in <em>Capsicum chinense,</em> <em>Datura metel</em>, <em>Solanum gilo,</em> and <em>Solanum indicum</em>. Bicolpate pollen grains were observed in <em>Capsicum chinense</em>, <em>Solanum pimpinellifolium, Physalis angulata, Solanum gilo, Solanum</em> <em>indicum </em>and <em>Solanum torvum.</em> Tricolpate pollens were observed in all the species except in <em>Datura metel </em>which has only acolpate and monocolpate pollen types indicating that it is a primitive dicotyledon. <em>Datura metel </em>pollen grains also have a characteristic thick wall and the highest mean diameter, which delimits it from the other species. <em>Nicotiana tabacum </em>is the only species with tetracolpate pollens which is a mark of recent evolutionary descent in comparison to the other species studied. The pollen grains sizes fall into the classification groups minuta (pollen grain diameter 10–25µm) and media (pollen grain diameter 25–50µm).</p> O. Adedeji, T. A. Akinniyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/240 Thu, 01 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Experimental Phenylketonuria on the Bone of Pregnant Mothers and their young during Perinatal Life and after Delivered Newborn of Albino Rats https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/241 <p>Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder that is characterized by an inability of the body to utilize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. The disease results from a deficiency in phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Although, this inborn error of metabolism was among the first in humans to be understood biochemically and genetically, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the pathology of PKU during neonatal development. Elevated concentrations of plasma phenylalanine were induced in pregnant rats by oral administration of 50mg/100g body weight alpha-methylphenylalanine plus phenylalanine supplementation at a dosage of 60mg/100g body weight two times daily after the 6th day of onset of gestation till 14 &amp; 16 days of gestation as well as at parturition. Treatment with alpha-methylphenylalanine/ phenylalanine resulted in a significant decrease of accumulated body weight gain during pregnancy as well as exhibited marked growth retardation of prenatal fetuses and delivered newborn. The growth retarded fetuses was manifested by decreased body weight, malformed both fore- &amp; hindlimb, oedematous skin &amp; superficial hematomas widely spread in different parts of the body. Ossification of bones was greatly altered. Skeletal abnormalities restricted mainly in skull, sternebrae, lumbar, caudal vertebrae and distal phalanx of both fore- &amp; hindlimb. Histological examination of femoral bone revealed varieties of histopathological abnormalities which illustrated and discussed. These results suggested that exposure of the fetus to high plasma concentrations of phenylalanine cause deformities of bone.</p> Hassan I. Elsayyad, Mahmoud E. Mohallal, Hany A. Hefny, Hala M. Ebied ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://e-journal.sospublication.co.in/index.php/jalrb/article/view/241 Thu, 01 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0000